Swaraj Party

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  • Swaraj party was formed as great within party by leaders like Motilal Nehru, Chittaranjan Das in 1923. It was outcome of sense of disillusionment created by sudden withdrawal of Non Cooperation Movement.
  • As a result of sudden withdrawal of Non Cooperation Movement in February 1922, a large section of Indian Nationalist had lost faith in efficacy of Gandhian Movement of struggle. They started believing that Gandhian Movement could never succeed because that movement was withdrawal at a time of its peak.
  • These differences emerged strongly at Gaya session of congress in December 1922 over issue of participation of congress in forthcoming general elections.
  • Leaders of congress got divided in two groups wise no change & pro change over this issue.
  • Vallabhai Patel and Dr. Rajendra Prasad were prominent leaders of no change camp. CR Das & Motilal Nehru were prominent leaders of pro changer camp.
  • No changers were closer follower of Gandhi while pro changers didn’t have faith in Gandhian Movement of that time.
  • No changes were against participation of congress in forthcoming election because Gandhiji was in favor of continuation of policy of Non Cooperation with British Rule.
  • Pro changers wanted to participate in for coming election because they wanted to carry politics of Non Cooperation Movement inside the legislature.
  • The no changers were majority in congress therefore congress decided to boycott forthcoming election.
  • The pro changers formed a group with name “All India congress khilafat Swaraj party” within congress to participate in forth coming elections.

 

Achievements of Swarajist

  • In spite of fact that first generation Politian & they got very little time to prepare for election they achieved significant success.
  • Swaraj Party wan majority in central provinces. It emerges as domination party in Bengal. It was an influential party in North West Province, Punjab.
  • In central legislative assembly Swaraj 42/101 seats.
  • Swarajist followed strategy of promoting national agenda & blocking anti-national resolution inside legislation by joining hands with likeminded groups.
  • Swarajist exposed hollowness system of diarchy introduced at provincial level by act of 1919 because still real power was in Government & Governor general.
  • Pressure mounted by Swarajist compelled government to appoint committee of Alexander Muddiman committee in 1924 to review the fan of diarchy.
  • Greatest significance of Swarajist lay in fact that they provided alternative strategy to Indians to fight against British Rule. The sense of disillusion created by sudden withdrawal of Non cooperation Movement couldn’t affect mass moral because they could continue their struggle against British Rule by participating in activities of Swarajist.
  • The experience gained by Swarajist by participating in election helped in bringing about political maturity in India. As a result of this Indian could fight effectively with greater success against British Rule in future.

 

Factors behind Decline of Swarajist

  • Swarajist started their political carrier with great enthusiasm but by 1926 they had lost eastern. This was lack of experience as part of Swarajist & mistakes committed by them.
  • Some of activities of Swarajist gave impression as if they were co-operating with government
  • In 1925, Vitthal Bhai Patel accepted office of speaker of central legislative assembly.
  • 1925, Motilal Nehru became the member of sheen committee appointed to suggest step for Indianization of Army.
  • This act of co-operate dated credibility of Swarajist & affected their mass appeal.
  • Death of CR Das in June 1925 came as big blow to Swarajist; he was most popular leader of Swaraj Party.
  • Appointment of Simon Commission in November 1927 changed character of political environment prevailing in India. It took sheen away from Swarajist their activities were no longer reflecting mass sentiments, realizing this Swarajist abundant their separate line of nationalist activities & join hand with main stream congress to participate in anti-Simon Commission agitate.

 

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