Agricultural India



The important allied sectors are:

  • Fishing
  • Forestry
  • Dairy Farming


Economic & Social Significance Of Allied Sectors


  1. It contributes to the National Income (11.5% – 13.5%)
  2. It contributes to employment (52% – 58%)
  3. It is the source of Food Security and Self-Reliance in food production.
  4. It a source of export and earnings of foreigner exchange.

Marine export is the largest contributor of agriculture & allied sector in Indian Economy.

  1. Rural infrastructure development and improvement in accessibility and communications.
  2. It has contributed and supported in expanding urbanization and industrialization.
  3. It has supported and strengthened backward (or) upstream linkages and forward (or) downstream linkages.




Significance of Upstream & Downstream Linkages


  1. Balanced development
  2. Self-reliance: our dependency on foreign economy is reduced.
  3. Our economy becomes broad based i.e., sector-arise as well as geography – wise.


Agricultural Seasons & Related Crops


On the basis of seasonal distribution of temperature and rainfall and related crops, these & agricultural seasons are identified in India.

  1. Kharif: These crops are related with the hot and humid southern western monsoon season. Important Kharif crops are:
  • Paddy (Rice), Cotton, Jowar, Bajra, Sugarcane, Groundnuts, Maize,
  • In high rainfall region Paddy and sugarcane is grown
  • In low rainfall regions Jowar, Bajra, Maize and Groundnuts are grown. In low rainfall regions, cultivation of paddy (Western UP, Punjab, and Haryana), sugarcane (Maharashtra), and cotton (Punjab & Haryana) are based on assured water supply through irrigation.


  1. Rabi Crops: These are winter season crops. These require moderate temperature (15-20oc). What, Barley, Potatoes, Mustard, Peas and Gram are important crops.
  2. Zaid Crops: These are summer crops associated with hot and dry season. Irrigation is required. Important crops are water melon, cucumber.

Institutional & Technological Modernization of Agriculture and Allied Sector & Related Effects

At independence, agriculture and allied sector was stagnated and declining. As economic planning started in India, rural and agricultural development became an important component of economic and social development of India. The following institutional changes have been introduced in the rural and agricultural sector:

  1. Land reforms
  2. Agricultural Price Policy
  3. Credit
  4. Insurance
  5. Marketing


  1. Land Reforms: Abolition of zamindari, consolidation of land and land ceiling were the 3 most important components of land reform. With the abolition of zamindari, ownership of land was transferred to the cultivators of the land.

Land consolidation is a process of converting small and fragmented land into a bigger and consolidated land holding to maintain the economic size of land holding.

Improvement in the modernization of technology and convenience in farming.

Land ceiling is the process of redistribution of land by taking away surplus land from the large farmers and redistributing amount to small farmers, marginal farmers and landless labourers.

  1. Agriculture Price Policy:


  1. A fair return to producers on their produce
  2. Stability in production and cropping pattern
  3. Price stability in the market
  4. Food security



  1. Minimum support price
  2. Procurement Price
  3. Duffer stock
  4. Issue price

Minimum Support Price: (MSP) It is declared by government before or on sowing season of a crop. With this, government assures farmers and producers, a fair return on their production in case there is over-production and fall in prices.

So, if supply is more than demand then prices are low. So, to prevent this vicious cycle of economy from being started the government tries to maintain MSP.

Procurement Price: It is the price at which the government buys food from the farmers through the FCI (Food Corporation of India). In general,

Procurement Price > MSP

Buffer stock: It is maintained by FCI to meet contingency and fall in food production. It is a reserved stock of food maintained by FCI in warehouses distributed throughout India.

Issue Price: It is the price at which food grains are sold to consumers through Fair Price Shops / Ration Shop

It helps in maintaining food security and price stability in the market.


  1. Credit: Institutional credit supply is a pre-condition for the modernization of agriculture. Credit availability and accessibility greatly determines the timely application of inputs like
  2. a) Improved seeds b) Chemical fertilizers,

insecticides & pesticides.

  1. c) Irrigation d) Machines.



The above socio-economic scenario of Indian agriculture is made better and targeted for all round benefit by the following institutions.

Nationalization of Banks                                                                                                                    Regional Rural Banks                                                                                                                            Co-operative Banks                                                                                                                            Kisan Credit Card Scheme

This scheme extends credit before the start of the season. It provides start-term

credit at low interest rates.


  1. Insurance: It is for insuring crops against natural hazards and calamities which resources sustainability in cropping pattern.




Here the products of rural and cottage industries are marketed and sold in domestic and export markets. These agencies ensure genuine prices to the famers and countrymen.

Technological Modernization

Technological modernization in agriculture and allied sectors are achieved by the following prerequisite inputs:

  • Improved Seeds
  • Assured Water Supply
  • Chemical Fertilizers
  • Chemical Insecticides and pesticides
  • Machines On Farm

Off Farm (Post harvest technologies)

Improved Seeds: These are also called High Yielding Variety Seeds (HYV Seeds). There are two kinds of HYV SEEDS, vijz:

  1. Hybrid Seeds B) Genetically Modified Seeds


HYV Seeds have a short period of maturity. So, Multiple Cropping is adopted. This improves the crop intensity thereby improving agricultural production & productivity. By this way, the success of Green Revolution was realized.

Assured Water Supply: Agriculture in India is called the Gamble of Monsoon. Assured water supply is a pre-condition for sustainable and stable production and productivity.

The various means of irrigation are-

Most                 Wells &Tube wells

Important                       Canals           in North India


Tanks            in South India

Assured water supply increases the Crop Intensity and Multiple Cropping. It also induces a change in the Cropping Pattern and Crop Combination. For instance, the introduction of the Indira Gandhi Canal Project in Rajasthan has converted the region to a major Region of Mustard Cultivation (Northern Western Rajasthan); Improved irrigation has induced Paddy Cultivation & Cotton in Punjab & Haryana; and Sugarcane in Maharashtra (which traditionally pertained to UP & Bihar).

Chemical Fertilizers: It assures nutritional security to crops and plants which are dependent on improved seeds which are dependent on improved seeds which have Shorter Maturity Period and Grow Faster.

Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium in the ratio

4        :           2          :           1          is considered ideal.


Chemical Insecticides & Pesticides: These assure security to crops and plants against attack of insects and pests during on-farm conditions as well as off-farm conditions when the produce is under storage. These way wastages are reduced and minimized. This is one of the major components which raise the market prices of fruits and vegetables.

Use of Machines: Machines are replacement of human labor. Use of machines improves efficiency and productivity. These are used mostly with High Yielding Varieties of seeds and during the practice of Multiple Cropping.

With the use of machines in the Agriculture Sectors, Human Labor becomes surplus which can be shifted to the Industry, Manufacturing & Services Sector to become more productive and efficient. Thus there must be a vibrant & growing secondary sector to absorb this surplus labor.

Post-Harvest Technology (Or) Off Farm Technology

  1. Storage of Agricultural Produce

These are involved in the storage of agricultural produce.

Warehouses                             Proper management of these helps

Cold storages                          reduce wastages during storage and thus realizes                  Refrigeration                           the income to the farmers.

For all these (cold storages & refrigeration), Electricity & Power is a pre-requisite.

  1. Processing: These are Agro-Processing & Food Processing industries that are involved in value addition. Processing industries in rural and agricultural sector results in Rural Industrialization which has the following benefits to it:
  • Income Generation
  • Employment
  • Growth of rural economy
  • Absorption of surplus labor

For rural industrialization Power, Transport & Communication are a prerequisite,

Programmes & Policies Related For the Modernization Of Agriculture & Allied Sectors

  1. Green Revolution: (For food grains) Improving the production and productivity of food grains, starting 1967-68.
  2. White Revolution: For improving production and productivity of milk, starting 1970.
  3. Blue Revolution: For improving production and productivity of fish, starting 1970.
  4. Yellow Revolution: For improving production of oil seeds & pulses, starting.
  5. Golden Revolution: For improving production and productivity of flowers, fruits and vegetables
  6. Silver Revolution: For improving production and productivity of Poultry.
  7. Brown Revolution: For improving production and productivity of Spices.
  8. Apiculture: For improving production and productivity of Honey
  9. Silviculture: For improving production and productivity of Timber Plantation.
  10. Social Forestry: Expanding forest were beyond forest area.
  11. Agro Forestry: Combining crop production and Forestry together where trees / forests are grown on the margins or bunds of the fields.
  12. Farm Forestry: Conversion of Cropland into forest cover. Rainbow revolution: This is for diversification of crops.