Racial Composition of India
It is believed that none of the human races originated in India. Indian people are by and large products of Intermingling & Inter-Mixing of different human races which have entered into India from different routes at different points of time.
The people of India are broadly classified into the following 6 human races on the basis of their biological features:
Linguistic Groups of India & Linguistic Regions
A Linguistic region is identified on the basis of the dominance of a language in a given geographical area. The following are the IR linguistic regions of India.
- Dravidian Group:
Tamil Nadu – Tamil
Andhra Pradesh – Telegu
Karnataka – Kannada
Kerala – Malayalam
Jamil is the oldest Dravidian language and Malayalam is the youngest. Andhra Pradesh was the 1st Linguistic State in India. Telugu is the most spoken Dravidian language in India.
- Aryan Group:
Maharashtra – Marathi
Gujarat – Gujarati
Odisha – Oriya
West Bengal – Bengali
Assam – Assamese
Punjab – Punjabi
Haryana, Rajasthan, Himachal Pradesh,
Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Madhya Pradesh, Hindi
These are Aryan languages. Sanskrit is the oldest Aryan language. Hindi is the most widely spoken Aryan language. It is the 4th must widely spoken language after Mandarin, English & Spanish.
Demographic Stages of India:
The First Census Of India was carried in 1872. The First Systematic census was carried out in 1881. Demographic stages are Identified On The Basis of Birth Rate, Death Rate & Growth Rate. The difference of birth rate and death rate is also called Demographic Graph. India has been divided into the following four demographic stages:
- Stationary Stage: India was in this stage till 1921. Birthrate and death rate both were high. Growth rate was negligible. Birth rate was high due to traditional society, dominance of rural and agrarian economy. Deaths were high due to natural hazards and epidemics. India had a negative growth rate where large scale death was by influenza. This decade is known as the Demographic Divide Of India.
- Slow Growth (Early Expanding): 1921-31, 1931-41, 1941-51. Here, birthrate was above death rate. There were no natural hazards, drought or epidemic.
- Rapid Growth / Population Explosion (Low Expanding/ Low Stationary): 1951-61, 1961-71, 1971-81. Here was a steep drop in death rate due to expansion in medical and health facility. However, birthrate was still high due to lack of literacy, low urbanization & industrialization and immature population policy. Growth rate was more than 20% per decade.
- Declining Growth Rate: Birth rate and death rate both declined. Birth rate declined due to literacy, education, urbanization, industrialization & maturity in population policy. Death rate further declined due to expansion of medical & health facilities. In 2001-2011, the Decade growth rate was 17% however, the net addition of population is large due to the large base of population.
New Population Policy of India
It is based on controlling & managing population in India through Human Development & Social Justice. It is a combination of these 3 objectives:
Long Term Objectives : Population Stability by 2045.
Mid – Term Objectives : Achieving replacement level by 2010.
Short, Term Objectives : Comprehensive, decentralized provisions of health
& medical facilities to all and enlarging choices in
Terms of contraceptives.
Economic & social benefits produced by a large, health and educated skilled population is known as Demographic Dividend. We have,
15 yrs to 65yrs age group Independent population
<15 yrs & > 65 yrs age group Dependent population