The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilisation in the northwestern regions of South Asia, lasting from 3300 BCE to 1300 BCE, and in its mature form from 2600 BCE to 1900 BCE. Along with ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia it was one of three early civilisations of the region comprising North Africa, West Asia and South Asia, and of the three, the most widespread, its sites spanning an area stretching from northeast Afghanistan, through much of Pakistan, and into western and northwestern India.
It flourished in the basins of the Indus River, which flows through the length of Pakistan, and along a system of perennial, mostly monsoon-fed, rivers that once coursed in the vicinity of the seasonal Ghaggar-Hakra River in northwest India and eastern Pakistan
In 1920s, the Archaeological Department of India carried out excavations in the Indus valley wherein the ruins of the two old cities, viz. Mohenjodaro and Harappa were unearthed. In 1924, John Marshall, Director-General of the ASI, announced the discovery of a new civilisation in the Indus valley to the world.
Origin of Harrappan Civilization
Harrappan Civilization was one of the oldest & greatest civilizations in history of mankind. It flourished for more than 1000 years in the Indian subcontinent. The discovery of this civilization pushed Indian history back by almost 2000 years because previously it was believed that Vedic age represented the first phase of evolved life in Indian subcontinent.
The Harrappan Civilization was an extensive civilization, till now more than 1400 Harrappan settlement have been discovered. This civilization covered an extensive area of about 1.3 million square kilometer but the origin of this great civilization has remained at the center of historical controversy different scholar have explained the origin of this great civilization quite differently.
Controversies related to origin of Harrappan Civilization
Origin of Harrappan Civilization has been a controversial issue because most of the evidences gathered from Harrappan towns & cities during archaeological excavation belong to mature phase of civilization. The evidences related to early phase of this civilization are quite limited. These limited evidences have been interpreted which different scholar. As result of which different theories emerged about origin of great civilization.
Most of archaeological excavation carried out at Harrappan cities have focused on discovering the horizontal expansion of Harrappan settlement. Vertical excavation was quite limited. At many of prominent Harrappan cities such as Mohenjo-Daro the lower levels are lying submerged in water. Because of this very limited evidences could be gathered about early phase of Harrappan Civilization. In absence of sufficient evidences associated with early phase of life in Harrappan settlement the picture of their origin has remained quite hazy & different theories have emerged to explain origin of this great civilization.
Theory of Sudden origin
According to this theory Harrappan Civilization was established by group of foreigners coming from Sumerian Civilization. These immigrants had the knowledge of urban life because they were living in towns & cities for a long time. This knowledge was used by them to establish. Towns & cities in Indian subcontinent. This urban phase is referred as Harrappan Civilization.
This theory was put forward by scholars like Sir John Marshall, R.E. Mortimer Wheelers & V. Gordon Childe. The supporters of this theory believed that Harrappan Civilization emerged rapidly. It attained mature phase within short span of about 500 years. This time period was estimated by keeping in mind 7 Stratigraphic levels discovered at Mohenjodaro. Such kind of rapid rise was possible only if makers of the cities had prior knowledge of urban life.
Basis of theory
- Supporters of foreign origin theory emphasized similarities between Harrappan Civilization & Mesopotamia civilization to prove that both civilization were work of same group of people.
- The Harrappan Civilization & Mesopotamia civilization was similar in their lifestyle & various other features-
- Both civilizations were urban.
- Both used seals (seals – authentication – seal on packed material stamp) to authenticate their transaction.
- Both used pictographic script.
- Potter’s wheel was used by both.
- Both used bronze.
- Burned bricks used by both civilization.
- Both were contemporary.
Theory of “Aryan Origin”-
Before the time of the Aryan migration into the Indian subcontinent, there was a highly developed civilization in ancient India known as the Indus Valley Civilization, which was located in what is Pakistan and northwest India today, on the fertile flood plain of the Indus River and its vicinity. The earliest evidence of religious practices in this area dates back approximately to 5500 BCE, farming settlements began around 4000 BCE, and around 3000 BCE there appeared the first signs of urbanization. By 2600 BCE, dozens of towns and cities had been established and between 2500 and 2000 BCE the Indus Valley Civilization was at its peak. The evidence suggests that the Indus Valley Civilization had social conditions comparable to Sumeria and even superior to the contemporary Babylonians and Egyptians.
By 1500 BCE the Aryans migrated into the Indian subcontinent. Coming from central Asia, this large group of nomadic cattle herders crossed the Hindu Kush Mountains and came in contact with the Indus Valley Civilization. This was a large migration and used to be seen as an invasion, which was believed by some scholars to be behind the collapse of the Indus Valley Civilization; this hypothesis is not unanimously accepted today.
Today scholars have a different understanding of how things developed. We know that a process of decay was already underway in 1800 BCE; some say that the Saraswati River was drying up, others that the region suffered catastrophic floods. The consequences of either event would have had a catastrophic effect on agricultural activity, making the economy no longer sustainable and breaking the civic order of the cities.
Theory of Gradual Evolution
Recent archaeological excavation carried out in north-western part in Indian Subcontinent has successfully discovered the antecedent communities & culture of the great Harrappan Civilization. The gradual evolution of these communities over a period of 3000 years resulted in emergence of Harrappan Civilization.
This theory has been supported by the evidence discovered by archaeological like Walter A. Fariservis, G.F. Dales, A.N. Ghosh, Stuart Piggott, and Raymond. According to these archaeological evidences, number of small communities like Kullu, Zhob, Nal Quetta, Mundigak were living in North-Western part of Indian subcontinent during 6th millennium BC.
These communities were small in size; their economic was subsistence & represented very early stage of human life. Process of gradual evolution transformed these communities into villages by 5000 BC. Evidence of this phase of human life has been found at Mehargarh. It was flourishing village in 500 BC in valley of river Bolan. Mehargarh region was semi-arid natural resource were rare in that area. Some people from Mehargarh region migrated into valley of river Indus.
The Indus Valley provided them an extensive fertile alluvial plain perennial source of water a better climate for agriculture & plenty of other natural resource like timber & minerals. This favorable geographical environment gave boost to process of evolution & by middle of 4th BC Mesopotamia towns like Amri and Kot Diji emerged in Indus region. These towns represented the proto-Harrappan phase (similar to Harrappan Civilization).
The process of gradual evolution resulted in stage of agriculture surplus by around 2800 BC by this time people had started using copper tools. The availability of agriculture surplus paved the way for rapid progress in fields of arts n crafts & trade & commerce. As result of this number of centers of arts & crafts & number of center of trade & commerce emerged. These urban settlements symbolized the emergence of Harrappan Civilization
Balance involving Agriculture surplus arts & crafts and trade & commerce prepared material basis for Harrappan Civilization till the time this balance remained instant, civilization continued to flourish. In beginning the Harrappan traded with nearby people. Their trade & commerce was local and regional in nature. By around 2500 BC, Harrappan started trade & commerce with Mesopotamia people because around this age Mesopotamia record started mentioning Meluha, the region identified with Harrappan Civilization
The balance of Harrappan external trade was highly favorable (that is positive) because Harrappan exported the primary & secondary goods. They imported gold n silver & semi-precious stone this inflow of foreign wealth carried prosperity of Harrappan cities to great Harrappan Trade & civilization reached its mature stage. Harappa & Mohenjo-Daro were Mega-cities of this great civilization during this period.