India after Independence
Integration of Native States was one of the greatest achievements of Independent India. It was cumbersome task because without integration of these Native States, the dream of creating a strong Indian Union would have remained unfulfilled.
- These native states were spread all over India. These were total 562 in number out of these 80 were located within territories allotted Pakistan and remaining 482 were located within remaining India.
- Some of these native states like Hyderabad were very big while some others like Bilbari were very small. The task of integrating these Native States was handled by Sardar Patel, the iron man of India with great perfection.
Status of Native State at the Time of the Lapse of British Paramountcy
- British Indian Empire was carved out of Indian National Struggle. Hundreds of these Native States were annexed by British through wars & battles.
- Subsidiary alliances system was used by British to subjugate Indian Native state.
- During period of East India Company, Native States were under control of British Indian Empire but when company was taken over by British crown it was emphasized that Native States were not under British India but they were under British crown directly.
- The Governor General of India was given additional designation of Viceroy to deal with Native States on behalf of British crown.
- The Mount Batten plan & Independence of India Act gave three choices to Native States. These were-
- They could join India.
- They could join Pakistan.
- They could remain Independent.
- Independent status of these Native States would have nullify very purpose of Indian liberation from British rule because Indian Union would have been only bits & piece as National states were 532 in numbers & they were scattered all over India.
Strategy and Approach used for Integration of Native State
- Responsibility of integrating National states was handled by Sardar Patel as he was in charge of home department & department of National states. Sardar Patel was ably supported by his secretary V.P. Menon.
- To carry out successful integration of National states, Sardar Patel used a two prompt strategy of persuasion & pressure. This deadly combination of pressure & persuasion enable him to accomplish this herculean task.
- Under strategy of persuasion, nationalist sentiments of National states were aroused. Their contribution to India in past was appreciated & their leadership was sought for newly emerging Indian Union.
- Native rulers were promised the continuation of their high status in Indian Union.
- It was also guaranteed that their economic interest remained same; their properties were remained with them & loss of revenue to be compensated through grant of Privy Purse.
- That Native ruler failed to response through persuasion then those are threatening by mass agitation & police action.
- They were warned that not only their economic resources would be last but they could also end up in Jail.
- This strategy based on pressure & persuasion produced desire result & by 14th Aug 1947, 529 states agreed to sign on instrument of Accession voluntarily only 3 states were left out & undecided. These were Kashmir, Junagarh, and Hyderabad.
Integration of Kashmir
- Kashmir was border state ruled by Raja Hari Singh. People of Kashmir as well as their king were in favor of integration with Indian Union. But Raja Hari Singh was apprehensive that atmosphere of extreme volatility created by partition of India could provide an opportunity to Pakistan to disturb the peace. Therefore he sought some time for India & Pak to make his decision.
- Government of India respected the desire of Raja Hari Singh but Pakistan tried to annex Kashmir by using force.
- On 22nd Oct 1947, the Pakistani forces attacked Kashmir by disguising them as local tribal. These invaders carried out massacre of Kashmir people on large scale.
- Raja Hari Singh of Kashmir was not in position to counter this Pakistani invasion. So, on 24th Oct 1947, he requested Government of India for help.
- The government of India refused to interfere in the internal matter of an Independent state Raja Hari Singh was asked to sign instrument of Accession after concerning with Sheikh Abdullah– the head of National Conference.
- On 26th Oct 1947, state of Kashmir signed Instrument of Accession & it was formed in Kashmir with Sheikh Abdullah as its head.
- On 27th Oct 1947, Indian forces were airdrops in Kashmir to counter Pak invaders.
- By the end of Dec 1947, 2/3rd of Kashmir was successfully liberated by Indian forces. So by 1st Jan 1948, Indian PM Jawaharlal Nehru was pressurized by Governor General Lord Mount Batten to take the issue of Kashmir to United Nation Organization. India was expecting that United Nation Organization will decide issue in impartial manner but since cold war was already was going on United Nation could not take an Independent state.
- In 1950, United Nation commission on Kashmir submitted its award which was revolving around three main points-
- Pakistan should withdraw its forces from territory of Kashmir under its control.
- India should remove bulk of its forces from Kashmir.
- Plebiscite should be held in Kashmir to understand desire of Kashmir.
- Pak Government rejected this United Nation award, India agreed to hold a plebiscite but since Pak didn’t withdraw its forces from Pak. The Plebiscite couldn’t be held.
- The issue of Kashmir is still alive, even after 3 wars having been fought between Indo-Pak over the same.
Integration of Junagarh
- State of Junagarh was ruled by Muhammad Mahabat Khan III. Inspite fact that most of citizens of Junagarh were strongly in favor of joining Indian Union, Nawab wanted to join Pakistan. There was no contiguous land border between Junagarh & Pakistan. But there was open access through sea.
- In Sept 1947, Nawab declared his intention to join Pakistan; a mass revolt broke out immediately. The Nawab fled to Pakistan.
- On 8th Nov 1947, Diwan of Junagarh, Shah Nawaj Bhutto wrote letter to Government of India requested that India should take over the administrative responsibilities of Junagarh.
- On 9th Nov 1947, Government of India took over the admin of Junagarh & this state became part of Indian Union.
- Since ruler of Junagarh had not signed any instrument of accession, a plebiscite was held on 20th Jan 1948 to understand the desire of people.
- In this plebiscite 80000 to 1lac voters favored integration with Indian Union & only 91 supported joining Pakistan.
- Local people movements known as Ārzī Hukūmat-e-Āzād Hind led by Samaldas Gandhi played important role in success of popular revolt in state of Junagarh.
Integration of Hyderabad
- State of Hyderabad was ruled by Nizam Osman Ali Khan. Inspite the fact that the majority of people of Hyderabad were in favor of joining Indian Union, Nizam was harboring the dream of joining Pak. He made every possible effort to find a way to join east Pak but in absence of contiguous land border. This plan couldn’t succeed.
- After failing in finding way to join Pak, Nizam of Hyderabad tried to maintain status of an Independent state.
- The demography of Hyderabad was biggest obstacle in the way of Independent status of Hyderabad.
- Around 87% of people were Hindus, because of this overwhelming Hindu majority, it was clear that plebiscite would in favor of joining India.
- To counter this challenge, Nawab planned a demographic transformation of state.
- Private militia known as “Razakar” was raised under leadership of Qasim Razvi. Razakar were giving free hand to push Hindu’s out of Hyderabad so that favorable vote could be ensured.
- Lakhs of poor Hindu peasants were forced out of Hyderabad. Their crops were destroyed & houses were burnt.
- Large scale exit of people from Hyderabad created very serious humanitarian crisis in neighboring state of Madras. When this crisis reached beyond manageable proportion, government of India had to undertake a police action code name operation “Polo”.
- Indian forces entered into Hyderabad on 13th Sept 1948.
- By 18th Sept 1948, Hyderabad was under Indian control.
- On 22nd Nawab agreed to integration of Hyderabad with Indian union.
Reorganization of States
- After achieving Independence from British Rule and caring out integration from Native States. There was a need to take step for consolidation of India as nation. The 1st major step taken in this direction was in the form of reorganization of Indian State.
- At the time of Independence there was hardly any time & opportunity to carry out the division of Indian territories into proper admin units. 532 small & big native states were integration within span of few months with the former British provinces.
- The territories were divided into admin unites of 4 types known as Part A, Part B, Part C & Part D state.
- The former British provinces were placed in Part A. The former native state was placed in Part B. The former chief commissioner provinces were placed in Part C, Andaman & Nicobar Island were placed in Part D.
- These territories have to be organized properly to look after admin responsibility in efficient manner.
S.K. Dhar Commission
- This commission was appointed by constituent Assembly in November 1947 to suggest the basis for reorganization of state.
- Commissioner submitted its recommendation in 1948 & suggested that the reorganization of state should be carried out by keeping in mind four paragraphs which were-
- Geographical Contiguity
- Admin viability
- Potential for Development
- Economic Self reliance
- Commission rejected language as the basis of reorganization of state.
JVP (Jawaharlal Nehru, Vallabhai Patel, Pattabhi Sitaramayya) Committee
- This was appointed by Congress at Jaipur session in 1948 to look into recommendation of Dhar Committee. Committee comprised Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, Sardar Patel & Pattabhi Sitaramayya.
- Committee studied report of organization. It also refused to accept language as basis of reorganizing Indian state.
- This committee suggested that reorganization of state should be carried out by keeping in mind needs of unity and integrity national security & economic development.
Demands for Linguistic reorganization of State
- The issue of reorganization on basis of language emerged for 1st time in 1916 when Tilak suggested that Congress provincial committee should by organized on basis of language for effective mobilization of people in Anti-British struggle.
- In 1934, at its Calcutta session Congress adopted resolution in which it was demanded that provinces should be organized on basis of language.
- The Congress was initially in favor of linguistic reorganization of provinces. But development in 1946-47 compelled it to drop the plan.
- Emphasis on separate identity based on religion had resulted in civil was like situation. Thousands of innocent Indians lost their life during communal riots.
- Partition of India had taken away joy of Independence; more than 80 million people became homeless in their own country Congress didn’t want to take any step that could result in similar situation in future. Because of this Congress has abundant support to linguistic reorganization. Most of National Leaders was in favor of merging local identity to create one identity, so that a strong Indian nation could be created.
- Rejection of taken language as basis of reorganization state by Dhar commission & JVP committee intensified demands for linguistics organization of provinces.
- The most intense agitation was being launched by Telugu speaking people of Madras presidency of under leadership of Potti Sreeramulu for a separate Telugu state.
- When his demands were not taken seriously Potti Sreeramulu went on fast up to death, on 19th Oct 1952. He died on 56th day in early morning on 15-16 Dec 1952. His death turned the agitation in favor of linguistic reorganization violent.
- Government of India had no choice but to accept the creation of separate Telugu speaking people from Madras presidency. In this way Andhra emerged as 1st state on basis of language in 1953.
Fazal Ali Commission
- Creation of Andhra intensified demand for linguistic provinces in other areas. To counter this challenge, Government of India appointed justice Fazal Ali Commission in 1953 to look into feasibility of using language as basis for reorganization of state.
- M. Pannikar & H.N. Kunjanu were two other members of this commission.
- Commission submitted its recommendation in 1955 and this recommendation became basis of State Reorganization Act 1956.
- Category of part A, B & C was amalgamating to create 14 states and 6 units.
- Government of India had to accept language as basis of organization of state under circumstances prevailing condition. In fact it was not bad decision at that time.
- In 1950’s, India was newly Independent nation, centrifugal tendencies were very dominant all over India because Indians were living in different political units since ages. Even at time of Independence, there were 532 Native States in India.
- Because of different historical background, people were apprehensive of losing their linguistic and cultural identities.
- After attaining political Independent from British Rule, task of consolidation as well as psychological integration of people with Union of India. Accepting language basis of reorganization state was right move in this direction.
- Linguistic reorganization state was beneficial in immediate sense because it was satisfied the sensibility of people.
- Linguistic coherent admin units were easy to government.
- In long run, the linguistic reorganization failed to produce any desire outcome
- Creation of state on basis of language strengthened the centrifugal forces. It obstructed the process of evolution of one common national identity.
- Creation of Telangana had clearly indicated that the linguistic reorganization failed to satisfy aspiration of people in long run because Andhra was 1st state to be created on basis of language.
Official Language of Indian Union
- India is multi lingual nation where more than 400 clearly indefinable languages are being used by different groups of people.
- Linguistic identity has been strong force in all societies; this is even truer for multi lingual society like India. There was extensive linguistic diversity in India at time of Independence & because of that newly created Indian nation language as most deceptive forces during 1st 20 of its existence.
Need of One Official language
- The makers of modern India were aware of the critical necessity of having one official language without which it was practically impossible to promote one Indian national identity.
- Linguistic diversity was a divisive force and there was a need of strong bond to overcome this divisive tendency.
- Most of leaders in constituent Assembly were in favor of accepting Hindi as official language of Indian Union. Because it was most commonly used language.
- Some leaders from non-Hindi areas were apprehensive that immediate declaration of Hindi language as Official Language could hurt interest of non-Hindi speaking area. It was decided to have extension period of 15 years during which English was continued as 2nd official language.
- Article 343 of Indian constitution provided coexistence of Hindi & English language for Indian union for 15 years from date of commencement of Indian constitution.
- The president of India appointed 1st official language commission under chairmanship of B.G. Kher in 1955. Commission submitted its recommendation in 1956. On basis of this, recommendation of committee official language Act (1969) was enacted.
- This act provided English shall continue as 2nd official language for period of 15 years from date of commencement of Indian constitution up to 25th Jan 1965.
- As year 1965 approached, linguistic agitation started emerging in various parts of India.
- In North India, agitation was in favor of recognizing Hindi as only Official Language in South India; agitation was in favor of continuation of English as 2nd Official Language.
- Samyukta Socialist party of Dr. Rammanohar Lohiya & Jana Sangh were prominent supporter of pro-Hindi movement.
- Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam was in for front in anti-Hindi agitation.
- Time and again Indian Leaders tried to conciliate Yunous group fighting for or against Hindi Language.
- In 1959 itself, Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru had commented that Hindi will not be imposed on non-Hindi speaking area against their will. He said that I would have alternate language as long as people require it & I would leave decision not to Hindi knowing people but non-Hindi knowing people.
- In spite this assurance, as 26th Jan 1965 approached an environment of for psychosis development especially in Tamil Nadu.
- Strong anti-Hindi movement emerged.
- On 17th Jan 1965, Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam organized Madras state anti-Hindi conference which decided to observe 26th Jan as day of mourning.
- Students concerned about safety of their career participation in large scale in anti-Hindi agitation.
- To tackle this extension, volatile condition parliament amended Official language 1967. This amended act provided that English will continue as 2nd Official Language as long as people deceive. This amendment resulted in adopting bi-lingual official language policy for indefinite period in future.
- The practice of untouchability was going on since ages. It commenced during post Mauryan age (2nd BC) & there after it continued to gain its influence in society.
- Untouchability was not only as evil, but in reality it was crime against humanity because untouchable were cadre as outsider to be the real normal of society. No social relation was to be maintained with them by any member of society.
- Untouchability was not only socially isolated but also economically isolated. The all path to eco-progress were blocked for untouchables without wiping out this evil practice political freedom was meaningless to large section of India population.
- Socio-religious reformed of 19th century as well as national leaders fought against this evil practice continuously.
- Bal Gangadhar Tilak had declared that if God was tolerating untouchability then I will not recognize him as god at all.
- Mahatma Gandhi also fought against this evil; radical of untouchability was one of the components of Gandhian village reconstruction programme.
- Makers of Indian constitutions were aware the necessity to wipeout practicing untouchability to achieve this objective. Article 17 was inserted in part III of constitution. This article guarantees the Fundamental rights of every person for protection against untouchability.
- Practice of untouchability was continued even after the adoption & implementation of constitution because there was no any law to punish the offender it somebody practiced untouchability.
- Realizing the gravity of challenge, the parliament exercised its exclusive authority conferred by Article 35(2) to enact untouchability offences Act 1955.
- This act declared practice of untouchability as non-cognizable & compound offense.
- Since offense of untouchability classified as non-cognizable & compoundable, the offender used higher status to pressurize the aggrieved individual to withdraw case if an offense case took place. As a result of this, practice of untouchability continued in society.
- Under these circumstances, parliament amended this act of 1955 in 1977 & renamed it protection of Civil Right 1955.
- Under this amended law, practice of untouchability was declared as cognizable & non-compoundable offense. This is strong step succeeded to wipeout untouchability.
Social Atrocity Scheduled Caste & Scheduled Tribe’s Prevention of Atrocity Act 1989
- This act was enacted by Indian parliament to guarantee protection from atrocity to members of Scheduled Caste & Scheduled Tribe.
- In spite of variation measure undertaken by government to improve socio-economic condition of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. Citizens belonging to this section of people continued to suffer from variation offences indignities humiliation, indignity & harassment. They were deprived by their life & property. The basic Civil were denied to them.
- To prevent such offences of social nature the parliament enacted prevention of Atrocity Act 1989, so that each section of people could live a life of dignity.
- Before the enactment of this act, such crimes were not clearly defined. As a result, the offenders get away quit easily.
- The Prevention of Atrocity act defined the offence of atrocity in three broad categories i.e. social disabilities personal atrocities & atrocities of affecting properties.
- The social disabilities included offences denied access to public place, common passage to prevent member of SC/ST to get water from well or reservoir.
- Personal atrocities outraging the modesty forcing a person to eat an edible substance injuring the person.
- Atrocity affecting property including taking away house or any other property.
- To liberate members of SC/ST from this crime Prevention of Atrocity 1989 provided for stringent punishment.
- Special court was created to the take up these crimes.
- It provided for appointment for special public prosecutors.
- Offenders denied anti-captor bell & probation after getting convicted.
- This tough measures prescribed by Prevention of Atrocity 1989 liberated the members of SC & ST from atrocities & enabled from to live a life of dignity.
National Policy on Tribal 2008
- Tribe refers to group of people living in geographically isolated area having a distinct culture and maintaining its district identity.
- Article 342 empowers president of India to notify a tribe, 1st such notification was issued in 1960 & at present there are 698 STs in India.
- The tribal constitutes about 8% of Indian population & without ensuring their around development it’s practically impossible for national to enjoy a tag of developing or developed state.
- Constitution of India provides for socio-economic development & empowerments of tribal.
- Special provisions were made for affirmative action to ensure the advancement of tribal.
- Article 338(A) provides national commission for STs.
- Article 371 contains special province for tribal areas.
- Schedule 5 & schedule 6 also contain special power for empowerment of STs.
National Tribal Panchsheel
- The government of Independent India was concerned about challenged faced by tribal. Jawaharlal Nehru was aware that if existing factor allowed, operating tribal will keep on suffering even after Independence.
- To ensure the all round development of tribal, five fundamental principles were outlined by Nehru in 1952 which are famously known as Nehruian Tribal Panchsheel.
- These 5 principles are-
- Tribal should be allowed to develop according to their own genius.
- Tribal rights in forest & land should be respected.
- Tribal team should be trained to undertake admin development without interference.
- Tribal development should be carryout without disturbing socio-cultural distinction.
- The index of tribal development should be positive improvement in their quality of life not the amount of money spent.
- The National Policy failed to have any significant impact on life of tribals because these principles represented broad outlook, these were lacking in specific.
Formulation of National Policy Tribal (2008)
- By closing years of 20th century, it was quite clear that tribal couldn’t develop proportionately with mainstream Indian people. As a result of this, Government of India initiated a series of steps to ensure the advancement of tribal.
- In Oct 1999, a separate ministry was created to deal with tribal affairs.
- Discussion was started to formulate National Policy for tribal with concern state, public & private organization, Non Governmental Organization & individuals.
- This discussion culminated in drafting National Policy on tribal in 2008.
- The National Policy Tribal takes into account, the challenges faced by tribal due to displacement in field of health & education & violation of traditional tribal returns.
- This policy emphasized that displacement should be carried out a last resort for development of tribes. It was found that among all displaced people, tribes constituted 55% despite the fact that 8% of people.
- The level of education in tribal is much lower when compared with other section of society. The National Policy Tribal required education infrastructure in tribal area & have special curriculum in accordance with tribal needs.
- National Policy Tribal provides safeguard from bio-piracy recognition heed to protect intellectual property of tribal because these community are rich in traditional wisdom.
- National Policy Tribal emphasizes on efficacy of participatory approach for ensuring tribal development.
- It provides for recognition role of Non Governmental Organization’s voluntary agencies in the implementation of development activities in tribal areas so that rapid advanced should be ensured & tribal could be safeguarded/ensured from on sought of outsiders.
- After achieving political independence, India had to win economic independence because without availability of sufficient eco-resources, the political Independent was meaningless to vast majority of Indian people. The Land Reforms initiated by Government of India represented the most serious efforts to empower the citizen economically.
- A number of laws were invented by government to enforce land reforms beginning in 1950.
What was the need of Land Reforms?
- Land Reforms were necessary to wipe out the evils left behind by British in Indian agrarian system. These were response & reaction of colonial legacy.
- Land Reforms settlement like permanent settlement, Malgujari settlement & Talukdari settlement introduction by British had resulted in deprivation of vast majority of Indian peasant of their traditional land returns.
- The Jamindars were recognized as owner of lands and peasants proprietor transformed into landless tenant cultivators.
- At time of Indian independence, more than 80% people were dependent on land. Their empowerment was linked with success of land reforms.
- That’s why Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru had commented that the success of Land Reforms majority will indicate our commitment towards democracy.
Approaches towards Land Reforms
- Three main approaches emerged in context of Land Reforms in India. These were-
- Gandhian Approach
- Nationalist Approach
- Marxist Approach
- Gandhian Approach manifested itself in form of “Sarvodaya” movement of Gandhi, the Bhoodan movement (1951) & (Gramadan movement (1957) of Acharya Vinoba Bhave were also based on same approach.
- These movements were reeling upon voluntary action on part of Jamindars. They were persuaded to give away their excess land holding so that it could be redistributed among landless & marginal farmer.
- This was failure because in any absence of compulsion, most landlords didn’t give away their excess land & whenever the lands were surrender for sake of social prestige, it was found to be completely fallowed.
- A total 46 lakhs acre land were collected through this movement out of 17.38 lands rejected as it was completely wasted. Only 11.9 lakhs acre could be redistributed & no taker was found for remaining 13.4 lakhs acre land.
- National approach relied on force of law in the implement of Land Reforms.
- The Marxist approach emphasized on use of radical, revolutionary method people were extracted not to share with landlord & treat themselves as owner of land.
- This approach manifested itself in form of Naxalbari movement & other moist movement.
Aims and Object of Land Reforms Laws
- The Land Reforms law enacted by government were guided by five main objects which were-
- Recognition of the ownership return of actual cultivator over lands.
- To safeguard interest of tenant & cultivator by fixing land rent & tenure.
- To carry out consolidation of land holding.
- To impose land ceiling, so that redistribution of land could be carried out among landless & marginal farmer.
- To promote co-operative farming, so that agricultural activity could be profitable.
- Land Reforms law enacted by government was only partially successful.
- In communist ruled state of Kerala & West Bengal, Land Reforms were highly successful.
- In states like Andhra Pradesh, Land Reforms were miserable failure.
- In other states, Land Reforms were successful only marginally.
Causes behind the Failure of Land Reforms
- Lack of co-ordination between center & state government was important factor behind failure of Land Reforms.
- Laws enacted by different state government were not uniform in many cases amount of land ceiling was kept so high that no redistribution of land could be carried out.
- Land Reforms enacted by government were having serious loopholes. These laws were not applied to every category of land. The archers the land, trees & semi fertile land were kept out of its previous.
- Benami action proved to be a biggest factor in failure of Land Reforms because government started enacting Land Reforms laws, the big land owner transferred their land into names of relatives etc to escape imposition of land ceiling.
- Lack of political will on part of government was another fact behind failure of Land Reforms.
- Law makers were big land owners, as a result of which they deliberately enacted weak laws.
- Improper implementation of Land Reforms law also contributed to their failure.
- Corruption prevailing in government department dealing with implementation of Land Reforms also contributed to failure.
Impact of Failure of the Land Reforms
- Failure of Land Reforms ensured that vast majority of Indian people had to live life of marginalized citizen. They couldn’t enjoy benefits of Independence. Their suffering continued even after the British Rule.
- The production of Indian agriculture remained very low.
- The failure of Land Reforms was responsible for continuation of failure like situation in India in 1950s & 1960s.
- Lack of self-sufficiency in field of food grain adversely affected national sovereignty. The India had to depend on program like “Food for rat” (Public Law 480) to feed the citizens.
- The continuation of suffering of vast majority pushed way peasants into fold of revolutionary ideology. The Naxalbari movement was product of this circumstance.
- The discontent of peasants was exploited by anti-national forces to raise violent struggle against state.
- The term Green Revolution refers to rapid increase in production of food grains during 1970s and 1980s which transformed the character of Indian agriculture.
- Green Revolution wasn’t name of any government policy but it was outcome of series of initiatives undertaken by government during 1960 & 1950.
- S. Swaminathan–Father of Green Revolution in India. At world level American-Mexican scientist Norman Borlaug is known as father of Green Revolution.
|M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation (MSSRF)’s Founder, Professor M S Swaminathan has been acclaimed by TIME magazine as one of the twenty most influential Asians of the 20th century and one of only three from India, the other two being Mahatma Gandhi and Rabindranath Tagore. He has been described by the United Nations Environment Programme as ‘the Father of Economic Ecology’ because of his leadership of the ever-green revolution movement in agriculture. Javier Perez de Cuellar, Secretary General of the United Nations, described him as “a living legend that will go into the annals of history as a world scientist of rare distinction”. He was Chairman of the UN Science Advisory Committee set up in 1980 to take follow-up action on the Vienna Plan of Action.
A central figure in the “green revolution”, Norman Ernest Borlaug (born March 25, 1914) was born on a farm near Cresco, Iowa, to Henry and Clara Borlaug. For the past twenty-seven years he has collaborated with Mexican scientists on problems of wheat improvement; for the last ten or so of those years he has also collaborated with scientists from other parts of the world, especially from India and Pakistan, in adapting the new wheat to new lands and in gaining acceptance for their production.
Need of Green Revolution
- Green Revolution was a necessity than a choice for India; the early years of Independent India were marred by severe shortage of good famine like situation was prevailing in many parts of India. The very purpose of Independence from British Rule was getting lost because of food scarcity.
- India was dependent on foreign food assistance to feed citizens. The program likes American food for peace and public law 480 (Public Law-480) were being used to meet food needs of citizens.
- Dependence on foreign food assistance was adversely affecting the respect & credibility of India as nation. It was becoming too difficult to follow an Independent food policy because program like food for peace were being used to keep nation on American side at time when cold war was going on.
- The food scarcity was affecting strength and effectiveness of Indian forces. During Indo-China war, Indian soldiers didn’t have sufficient food.
- To counter all these challenges, Government of India initiated number of policy & measures. Green Revolution witnessed during 1970-80 was outcome of same.
Factors involved in Green Revolution
- The land reforms initiated by government after India helped in creating a favorable environment for success of Green Revolution. The consolidation of land holdings enabled profitable cultivation. It also helped in development of agrarian infrastructure such as irrigation facilities.
- The introduction of high yielding variation of seeds played important role in success of Green Revolution.
- These seeds were used 1st time in India in 1968.
- Use of chemical fertilizers & pesticides also helped in increasing food grain production because not only fertility of soil increased but at the same time, the crops also protected from paste & other challenges.
- Intensive irrigation & drip irrigation were also adopted to increase production of food grain.
- Mechanized cultivation were also promoted for increasing production the use of machinery made agricultural for more efficient deeper ploughing helped in practicing wet paddy cultivation.
- Use of machinery helped in extension of cultivation the land lying caused could be brought under plough.
- Along with these step related to increase production, Government of India established food grain market so that farmers could sell their crops without much difficulty.
- Steps were also taken to ensure available of credit facility with farmer so they could purchase new implement & high yielding variety of seeds.
Positive Outcomes of Green Revolution
- Green Revolution was highly beneficial for Indians because it resulted in remarkable increase in food gain production.
- In 1968, production of rice was 40million tons, it increased to 60 million ton by 1980 and to the 80million ton by 1993-94.
- Production of wheat was 20million ton in 1968. It increased to 50million ton by 1980 & 60million ton by 1993-94.
- Green Revolution transferred India into a self-sufficient nation on food front. Not only domestic food needs mate successfully but also India was in position to export food grain.
- Green Revolution enabled India to save precious foreign exchange by meeting domestic food needs on its own but at same time India could earn foreign exchange by exporting food grain.
- Self-sufficiency on food front liberated India from clutches like food for Peace & Public Law-480
- This greatly enhanced respect of India in community of nations.
- The areas in which Green Revolution was successful, the quality of life of peasants improved significantly.
- These farmers had sufficient resources at their disposal and now they could easily buy material things.
- Green Revolution helped in development of agrarian infrastructure because agricultural marketing & irrigation etc. development quite rapidly during 1970-80s.
- The Green Revolution also helped in increasing demand of secondary eco-activities (industries) because of availability of surplus with peasant.
- It also helped in extension in cultivation because increase in production had made cultivation profitable.
Negative Outcomes of Green Revolution
- Green Revolution resulted in intensification of regional imbalance because it was successful in area of Punjab, Haryana & Western Uttar Pradesh but eastern part of India couldn’t gain much from Green Revolution.
- Big farmers were more benefited from small farmers from Green Revolution because big farmers could easily practice mechanized cultivation & they could purchase high yielding variety of seeds.
- Many of small farmers were push into serious debt crisis by Green Revolution.
- As the formal credit facility weren’t very well developed. These farmers had to take loan from local money lender who charged very high rate of interest when they failed to repay the loan; many of them had to sell their land to come out of crisis.
- A success of Green Revolution resulted in problem of conspicuous consumption. The evils like dowry gained popularity. Large expenditure began to make on festival & ceremonies. These habits created many other challenges for villagers.
- Green Revolution strengthened materialistic outcome among peasantry who were benefited from it.
- The intensive irrigation practice as a part of Green Revolution resulted in lowering in water table level & problems like water logging. Salivation of land also took place due to excess of water.
- Large scale use of chemicals, fertilizers resulted in serious ecological & environment consequences.
- The surfaces water-bodies as well underground water table polluted.
- This chemical pollution gradually entered in human food chain & bio-magnification resulted in serious health hazard.
- Health challenges like cancer being witnessed in Punjab are the outcome of evil consequences of Green Revolution.
- Since Green Revolution largely benefited the wheat & rice only, it resulted in change of diet better. These two grains were consumed by comparatively well section of people. The cost of food grains being consumed by poorer section continued to remain high.
- The % of carbohydrates in north Indian diet increased enormously but % of protein (Pulse) in diet got reduced. This also affected health of people in green revolution of India.
Causes of Failure Green Revolution in Eastern India
- The land reforms were largely failure in Eastern Indian till 1970s, because of this the consolidation of land holding couldn’t take place most of peasants were tenant & cult who didn’t have authority to change pattern of production.
- Geo-climatic factor played important role in failure.
- Amount of rainfall in Eastern India is much higher than Western region. As a result of this, soil comparably different in humus & other minerals.
- Problems like water logging & salivation were more common.
- High yielding variation of seed used in Green Revolution was not suitable for this geomagnetic region.
- Agrarian infrastructure were largely absent in Eastern India. Artificial irrigation was almost precondition for success of Green Revolution but the tube wells were few in Eastern India.
- Credit in market facilities were also largely non-existence in Eastern India, as a result of this, farmers could neither purchase the new seeds not the implements.
Second Green Revolution
- It was launched by Government of India to overcome limitation of 1st Green Revolution.
- 1st Green Revolution didn’t fund much success in Eastern India. As a result of that, 2nd Green Revolution started in 2011-12.
- It targeted the state of Eastern India such as East Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, and West Bengal & Assam.
- 2nd Green Revolution relying on the use of genetically modified seeds so that agricultural production could increase without resorting to use of excessive use of chemical fertilizers & pesticides.
- It was also focusing on agro forestry.
- 2nd Green Revolution has been planned to take act state specifically geo-climatic condition so maximum possible production could ensure. It focused on being bringing the degraded land under cultivation by planting trees and by using other intervention.
- The 2nd Green Revolution was going on at present.
Environment Protection-Chipko Movement
- Chipko Movement was started in April 1973 in the hilly areas of Garhwal region of present Uttarakhand state by local people under the leadership of Chandi Prasad Bhatt, Gaura Devi & Sundarlal Bahuguna etc.
- This movement was primarily a livelihood movement rather than forest conservation movement but it went out to become rallying plant for many future environmentalists not only in India but also in other parts of world.
Why Chipko Movement was launched?
- This was launched to oppose excessive deforestation in hilly areas so local could be saved from evil consequence of deforestation. The Chipko Movement also raised voice against evil prevailing in contract system being used for cutting of Tree.
- After attainment of India from British Rule, rate of deforestation in India increased significantly because timber was required in lane of railway tracks & for other infrastructural development.
- The defeat of India at hands of China in 1962 made government realized that there was an urgent need to develop border infrastructure.
- Steps were taken for construction of roads lying out of railway lines, building of bankers & military garrison etc. in border areas.
- These activities required clearing of forest on large scale.
- The cutting of forest was carried out under contract system. In his system, highest bidder was given return to cut trees in a particular area.
- Most of contractors were from plain region they were unaware of needs & sensibilities of people living in hilly areas.
- Contractors used to bring labor from plains, as a result of which the local started facing severe challenge of unemployment.
- As per government regulation only grown trees were to be cut & undergrowth was not being clear. But since corruption was rampant in contractor system, these contractors used to cut all small & big trees.
- This large scale deforestation seriously affected socio-economic life of locals.
- The deforestation resulted in problems like land slide, soil erosion.
- Floods, drought was frequent.
- Locals faced difficulties in fetching minor forest product, fodder, fuel wood, water.
- As wild animal losing their natural habitat, they started entering villages.
- Women were severely affected by this, because they were supposed to fetch fuel wood, fodder & water etc.
- Women had to travel long distance to fetching these items.
- When a serious crisis development in Garhwal region leaders like Chandi Prasad Bhatt, Gaura Devi, Sundarlal Bahuguna exhorted locals to rise against the evil contract system.
- Whenever contractors came to cut tree with their men, locals mainly the women & children used to hug tree prevent from cutting.
- Popularity of Chipko Movement was spread like wild fire & it became impossible for contractor to work. The government intervened & took steps to protect livelihood of local.
- Success of Chipko Movement inspired similar movement Appiko movement Karnataka.
Temples of Modern India/Progress in the field of Science & Technology Industries and multipurpose project
|Bhakra Nangal Dam under Construction|
- At time of Indian Independence, the level of Socio-education was very low because India had suffered immensely during 200 years of British colonial rule.
- After attaining freedom from British Rule, Government of India took number of serious steps for eco-education science advancement. The institution created during Nehruian era is commonly known as temples of modern India.
- Planning commission was established in 1950.
- National development council in 1952.
- These initiatives paved way for planned economic way for India.
- With the help of foreign assistance, a number of industrial plans were established.
- Rourkela steel plant 1955 with West German assistance.
- Durgapur steel plant 1962 with British assistance.
- Bokaro steel plant 1964 with Soviet Union (USSR).
- Bhilai steel plant 1967 with Soviet Union (USSR).
- IIT’s began to be established by Government of India in 1951.
- IIT Kharagpur was opened in August 1951.
- These institutions based on American model of Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
- In 1961, the Government of India enacted institute of Technology Act which declared as IIT’s as institution as nat. importance.
- Atomic energy established at Trombay in 1954.
- University Grant Commission was created in 1953. It granted statuary recognition in 1956.
- To pave way for space research, Indian Space Research Organization was established 1969.
- Multipurpose project formed an important chapter towards made all-around.
- Damodar Valley cooperation July 1948 came into existence July 1948 benefited Jharkhand, West Bengal.
- Bhakra Nangal Dam begins to construct 1948. It dedicated to nation in Oct 1963 by Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru. At time opening ceremony of this claim Nehru commented that claim has been built with unrelenting soil of men for benefit of man.
You may call it as temple, Gurudwara or Mosque. It inspired our administration & reverence.
Indian Foreign Issues Policy
- India emerged as independent nation in 1947 as a result of which Indian leadership got opportunity to formulate & implement the national food policy.
- Fundamentals of Indian Foreign Policy having shaped by geopolitical realities, domestic needs & international environments.
- The geopolitical realities prevailing in Indian neighborhood in immediate term & in world as a whole influenced Indian Foreign Policy greatly.
- Independent India had to adjust to external hostile neighborhood since neighbor can’t be change; government of India had formulated its Foreign Policy so that challenges in posed by neighbor can be handling successfully.
- The bitter memories of colonial rule also shaped colonial policy because India had suffered enormously during two centuries of British Rule. Government of India was concerned about the implication of colonialism & imperialism, because of this Independent India always supported the right to self-determination of different groups & nationalities.
- Ever since India Independent government always opposed colonialism & imperialism.
- The fundamental Indian culture value such as belief in mutual respect. Emphasized on peaceful co-existence and non-interference in international matters of others have also shaped Foreign Policy
- The needs of Indian socio-economic advertisement have also influence Indian relationship with other countries. The level of socio-economic advertisement was very low at time of Independence. There was urgent need to seek co-operation from other national to maximum possible extent. Government of India used Foreign Policy to achieve this objective.
- Destruction & devastation left behind by World War convinced Indian leaders that the peaceful resolution of International dispute & different is the only way out.
- Wars & battles were going in world in different form convinced Indian leadership that this armament it’s a necessity in war level & without this the future of humanity always remain of stake.
- Principles of United Nations charter also left a lasting influence on Indian Foreign Policy because India was one of the founding members of United Nations Organization.
- Cold war hostilities, prevailing in world also influenced Indian Foreign Policy. The 2 superpower were busy in a serious indirect conflict to ensure domination of their ideology.
- The Government of India formulated its Foreign Policy in such a way so that India could remain away from evil effects of cold war competition.
- Extension aggression faced by India during early decades after Indian independence also affects Indian Foreign Policy. India had to suffered a humiliate defeat by China in 1962. This defeat made Indian Leaders much more pragmatic.
- The desire of independent Government of India to have an Independent stand on international matter also affected Indian Foreign Policy.
- Independent India very concern about necessity to present its view put on bilateral & multilateral platform without getting any influence by any extension power.
- This desire compelled India to join hand with like-minded nations at different forums.
Fundamental Features of Indian Foreign Policy
- Indian Foreign Policy is characterized by firm belief in idea of internationalism.
- Ever since Independent from British Rule, India had participated actively in international matter so that spirit of co-operation should strengthened.
- Ideas of Panchsheel have been important feature of Indian Foreign Policy since Independence. These 5 principles of Panchsheel are-
- Mutual respect
- Mutual non-interference
- Peaceful co-existence
- Respect for sovereignty
- Equality in mutual benefit
- Emphasis on disarmament was an important feature of Indian Foreign Policy.
- Indian Foreign Policy also characterized by use of soft power instead of threatening other. Other has always relied on the use of positive cultural influence to safeguard Indian national interest.
- Non-alignment was an also important feature of Indian Foreign Policy because India didn’t want to become part of cold war politics.
- Opposition of colonialism & important had been an important component of Indian Foreign Policy from very beginning.
- Belief in peaceful resolution in dispute had also characterized because India believe that wars & battle complicate matter instead of resolving them.
- Indian Foreign Policy was also characterized by elements of continuity & change.
- During early year of Independence, idealism was more dominant in Indian Foreign Policy. But gradually a pragmatic outlook started guiding Indian Foreign Policy relation.
- India & China enjoyed close relation during ancient time, both the civilization are very old. In fact India & China civilization are among the oldest civilization in world.
- During ancient age, Indian used to enjoy close trading relation with China.
- The trade was carried out through land as well as sea routes.
- Indian merchant imported huge quantity of silk from China and this silk exported to Rome at a big margin.
- Indian rulers like Harshvardhana Rajendera Chola & Kulttug Chola exchanged embassy in China to promote Indo-china relation.
- In modern times, the China-India has pulled around Tibet & when China emerged as communist nation in 1949, Chinese aggregation took Indo-China relation into new direction.
- In modern time, 1st evidence of interaction Tibet belongs to the period of company rule.
- In 1775, Governor General Warren Hasting sent George Bombley as one member mission to Tibet to promote Indo-Tibetan trade.
- This mission couldn’t produce any concrete result because Tibetan government was following policy of least interaction with outside world.
- The Tibetan princely Lierarchy & Chinese resident stationed at Lahasa didn’t allow English mission to succeed.
- As a result of this, no further interaction took place between British Indian-Tibet relations for century.
- Closing decades of 19th Century, Russian government started spreading its influence in Tibet. This Russian strategy part of so called “Great Game” Russian government following policy of encircling British India for long time. Russian had spreaded influence in Afghanistan & now in Tibet.
- Russia was supping arms & emanation to Dalai Lama. Russians also wanted contract for development railway line in Tibet.
- During early year of 20th Century, there was strong rumor that Russia & China had agreed that Tibet was declared as Russia’s Protectorate.
- Governor General Curzon was greatly alarmed by increasing Russian influence in Tibet & to check it he sent “Young Husband mission” to Tibet 1903 with contingent of Gorkha soldier.
- Young Husband Tibet mission was not welcomed. Tibet refused to negotiate them but finally he was successful in dictating peace treaty (1904) through which British India receives number of special privileges.
- Provision of this treaty clearly emphasize that Tibet wouldn’t grant concession for railway telephone etc for any foreign state.
- This treaty gave control to British over foreign affairs of Tibet.
- British India got returns to established its trade office in Tibet & maintain troops for safety.
- These special privileges were enjoyed by India till 1950.
- Western part of Indo-Tibetan border is known as Johnson line, it was demanded by W.H. Johnson in 1965.
- East part of Indo-Tibetan border is known as McMahon line.
- Henry McMahon, the foreign secretary to government of India had played most important role in drawing Indo-Tibetan eastern border.
- McMahon agreed upon between Indian & Tibetan representatives in 1940 in conference at Shimla.
- The McMahon line was drawn on map, it never demarked on ground during period of British Rule.
- This line proclaimed Indo-Tibetan border as the high peaks located between India & Tibet that is McMahon line passes through highest peak located between Indo & Tibet where these peaks located on ground nobody know in 1940.
- Since there was no Chinese representation in Shimla conference in 1940, the Government of China (Communist) refused to recognize it. The Chinese government claimed that the real border is located for south to McMahon line.
- This different interpretation became bone of contention between India & China.
Indo-China War 1962
- The larger background of Indo-China war can be traced to emergence of China as communist nation Oct 1949.
- China’s communist regime emphasized on “One China” policy. It demanded integration of all those territories which were ever part of Chinese empire in past.
- This aggressive approach came Communist regime seriously affect Indo-China relation.
- In spite the fact that Chinese government promised India repeatedly, no military action will be taken for intake of Tibet. China deceptively occupied Tibet by sending his army (Oct 1950). This act of Chinese aggression left a serious impact on Indian understanding of Chinese step. But for sake of close friend relation, India accepted Chinese control over Tibet & Government of India renounced all its traditional privilege in Tibet voluntarily.
- Chinese government repeatedly emphasized that no change will impose on Tibet against their will because Tibet Socio-Cultural structure was considered different from that of China.
- After occupying Tibet Chinese government started imposing communist socio-economic ideas of Tibet as a result of which revolt & rebellions started interrupting against Chinese rule (1956-57).
- Chinese government responded with massive use of force to suppress the Tibetans.
- In 1959, Chinese forces surrounded Lahasa & unleashed a massive crackdown to suppress the rebels.
- Chinese forces tried to capture Dalai Lama but he could somehow escape across border into India.
- The Government of India decided to extent shelter to Dalai Lama on humanitarian grounds & this because an immediate issue that pushed India & China into war.
- Shelter giving to Dalai Lama was interpreted as interference in international matters of Chinese
- Chinese government emphasize that it was violation of provision of Panchsheel.
- Suspicion & destruct entered into Indo-China relation. In light of Chinese deception in Tibet Government of India wasn’t in position to trust C. leadership.
- In order to safeguard Indian national interest Indian Government led by Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru instructed the forces to reach McMahon line. This aggressive forward policy intensified the hostilities between India & China.
- Taking advance of fact that Indian aggressive forward policy was lacking proper background support, Chinese forces crossed to Indian sides on 20th Oct 1962 and war begin. This conflict lasted just about 1 month because on 21st Nov 1962, Chinese declared cease fire.
- China’s communist regime emphasized on “One China” policy. It demanded integration of all those territories which were ever part of Chinese empire in past.
Significance of Indo-China War
- In spite fact that war lasted only for one month, it exposed military unpreparedness of India. Indian forces couldn’t stand against China on slaughter. China was successful in eastern & western region
- China entered 20km in Indian territories.
- Indian sites suffered loss of 1383 soldier, 1996 soldier couldn’t be traced 1047 soldier were wounded. On Chinese side this number was quite less only 722 lost their life nobody missing & 1697 soldiers were wounded.
- This Indo-China war exposed idealistic limitation of Indian Leaders. “Hindi Chini Bhai Bhai” lost its appeal. This defeat shocked Indian Leaders into consciousness. Significant of military forces was realized as a result of which serious steps were taken to strengthen arm forces.
- The bitter experience of Indo-China war prepared India for successful fight against Pak there is steps taken by Government of India to strengthen arm forces ensured Indian victory against Pak in 1965.
- The defeat of India at hands of China compelled Indian Leaders to come out of idealism & pursue a pragmatic policy so that Indian nation interest could remain safe.
- This Chinese invasion shattered Indian faith in truthfulness of Chinese leaders, as a result of this India & china could never trust each other whole heartedly here after.
1965 Indo-Pak War
- The 1965 Indo-Pak war was outcome of accessional hostilities between India & Pakistan. It was carry forward unfinished agenda of partition. The issue of Kashmir was cause of India because Pakistani launch attack on India to capture Kashmir.
- The aggressive design of Pakistani military regime was responsible for war in immediate sense, Pakistani government led by Ayub Khan had no faith in efficacy of peaceful method to resolve dispute & different. It wanted to settle issues with India through war.
- Ayub Khan was under impression that the moral of Indian forces was low as result of Indian defeat at the hands of China in 1962. He believed that one big push will result in Indian surrender & Pak can easily achieve a decisive victory.
- To test Indian result, dispute was triggered in Rann of Kutch.
- Pak demanded an area of 3500sq miles from India in Rann of Kutch.
- In Jan 1965, Pak started intensive patrolling along Gujarat border & very soon crossed border firing commenced between 2 nations.
- To avoid possibility of full-fledged conflict issue referred to International tribunal for arbitration with intervention of British Prime Minister Herold Wilson.
- Transfer of issue to Indian Territory was victory for Pak because the Pak regime succeeded in creating a dispute out of nothing.
- Embolden by this success Pak government planned “2 front battle” against India & Kashmir.
- In this strategy a large number of Pak government infiltrated across border to instigate popular revolt so India forces could be attacked by both front.
- During opening days of month of Aug large number of Pakistani Soldiers 26k to 33k was infiltrated across border in Kashmir in dress of local civilian.
- These Pak infiltrated immediately identified by local & information pass on to Indian forces immediately war commenced.
- The fight continued for about 2 months before situation deadlock was reached on 23rd Sept 1965, both neighbors agreed to cease fire & this cease fire ratified into Tashkant in Jan 1966.
- This declaration was signed by Indian PM Lal Bahadur Shastri & Pak president Md Ayub Khan Tashkant (Uzbekistan) on 10th Jan 1966.
- USSR president Alexes Kosigin mediated talk.
- Tashkent Declaration provided that-
- Indian-Pakistani forces would be pulled back to pre-conflict position
- Both nations wouldn’t internal affair of each other.
- Economic & diplomatic relation would be restored.
- Prisoners of wars would be transfer to each other.
- Both the leader agreed to work towards building good relation between two countries.
- Tashkant Declaration strongly criticized in India because it didn’t contain “no war” pact. It was expected that Pak should be compelled to promise that in future no invasion will take place from their side.
- It also expected that Pak will guarantee any indirect method of warfare (insurgency/infiltration) across border.
The absence of such guarantees was big limitation of Tashkant Declaration.
1971 War of Bangladesh Liberation (1971 Indo-Pak War)
- Fundamental cause of this war was discriminatory outlook of Pak government towards people of East Pakistan.
- The state of Pak comprised to culturally different territories located wore than 2000 miles apart.
- Since capital was located in West Pak. The politico-admin & military institution of Pak were under dominance from people of Punjab.
- West Pak didn’t cadre East Pak as equal citizens because of this political polarization took place in both the part of Pak.
- Sheikh Mujibur Rehman was most popular leader in East Pak & his Awami league enjoyed immense mass support.
- This situation of cultural & political division people between East & West Pak created circumstances leading to outbreak of war in 1971.
- In 1970 General elections were held in Pak in these elections, the Awami league of Sheikh Mujibur Rehman 167/169 of East Pakistan. The total strength of Legislative House of Pak was 313. In this way, Awami league could win majority in Pak parliament without winning single seat in West Pak.
- Pak president General Mohammad Yahya Khan refused to appoint Sheikh Mujibur Rehman as Prime Minister. In spite of fact that his party won clear majority. This resulted in agitation & demonstration in West & East Pak.
- These agitation & demonstration were taken as challenge to authority of state dominated by people of West Pak Sheikh Mujibur Rehman was arrested & was carried to some secrete location.
- Pak forces led by General Tika Khan resorted to extension suppression of people.
- More than 20 lakhs people were killed in East Pak. Most of these were Bengali Hindus who was cadre to be trouble maker.
- More than 1 crore civilian field to India across border to save their life.
- In extension humanitarian crisis development in border area on Indian side.
- Under these, Government of India had to intervene in matter of East Pak. India Prime Minister Indira Gandhi declared full support to struggle of people of East Pak.
- Bengali suffering at the hands of Pak forces formed liberated force known as “Mukti Vahini”. On 3rd Dec 1971 the Pakistan air-force started attacking Indian bases in frontier post resulting in full-fledged open war.
- This conflict lasted 13 days more than 90000 Pak soldier imprisoned in Bangladesh & Pak surrendered unconditionally.
- Peace agreement signed at Shimla in July 1972.
- Shimla Agreement signed on 2nd July 1972 between Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi & Pakistan President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto.
- This agreement provided-
- Both the nation shall abide by the principles of United Nations charter.
- Both the countries agreed to resolved by peaceful means through bilateral negation and any other peaceful mean agree upon mutual.
- Both promise to respect territorial integrity & sovereignty of each other.
- Both agree not to interfere in international affairs of each other.
- Through Shimla agree both governments agree to take step to resume communication between two countries to restore eco-relation & to promote traveler facilities for nationals of each other.
- Both government agreed to withdraw their forces to cease fire line agree between two in Kashmir at International border.
- The Independence of Bangla was recognition by Pakistan.
- Prisoners of wars were to be handed over to each other in system manner.
The Emergency, 1975
- The Indian Emergency of 25th June 1975-21st March 1977 was a 21 month period, when President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed, upon advice by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, declared a state of emergency under Article 352 of the Constitution of India, effectively bestowing on her the power to rule by decree, suspending elections and civil liberties.
- This was a dramatic turn in the Indian political affairs. The democracy was brought to a grinding halt and all the fundamental rights and legal remedies protected by the Constitution of The Republic of India were suspended.
- Indira Gandhi tried to defend the emergency on the grounds that she was trying to protect the State and the Indian people. Nevertheless, her emergency rule faced immense criticism and is undoubtedly one of the most controversial periods of the political history of Independent India.
Timeline of Key Events during the Emergency
July 1st, 1975, Economic and Social reforms: Civil Liberties were suspended and the government introduced a mandatory birth control program. During the emergency, Mrs. Gandhi’s 20-Point programme promised to liquidate the existing debts of landless laborers, small farmers and rural artisans. The programme planned to extend alternate credit to them, abolish bonded labor and implement the existing agricultural land ceiling laws. It provided house sites to landless laborers and weaker sections and it revised upwards minimum wages of agricultural labor. The program also provided special help to the handloom industry by bringing down the prices, preventing tax evasion and smuggling, increasing production and streamlining distribution of essential commodities. It increased the limit of income tax exemption up to Rs 8000, and liberalized investment procedures.
July 4th, 1975, four parties banned: The government of India banned four major religious, political and revolutionary parties and 22 associated parties with them. These parties included the Anad Marg, Rashtriya Swayamasevak, the Naxalites and the Jamaa-e-Islami-e-Hind.
August 3rd, 1975: An amendment to the Representation of the People Act was drafted to clear Indira Gandhi from the Allahabad high court ruling of June 12th 1975.
August 4th, 1975: A least 50,000 or more people had been jailed in India since the declaration of Emergency.
August 15th, 1975: Bangladesh President Mujibar Rahaman was assassinated by Bangladeshi military leaders and this incident gave rise to new external problems in India.
September 15th, 1975: Delhi High Court ruled that charges must be entered when arrested under the Internal Security Act.
September 26th, 1975: Constitution (39th Amendment) Bill 1975 allowing the election of a Prime Minister beyond the scrutiny of the parliament was approved.
January 9th, 1976: The government suspends seven freedoms guaranteed by Article 19 of the Constitution of India.
February 4th, 1976: Lok Sabha’s life extended by one year.
November 2nd, 1976: Lok Sabha passes 42nd Constitution Amendment Bill making India a socialist, secular, republic and laying down the fundamental duties of citizens.
January 18th, 1976: The President dissolves Lok Sabha
March 21st, 1976: Emergency withdrawn.
March 22nd, 1976: Janata Party gains absolute majority
Post Emergency Period
The 21 month Emergency period was long and intensive, enough to leave permanent scars. The Janata Party was now the ruling party in India. The Janata government’s response to the natural calamities (seasonal floods and their associated devastation) and old Indian Problems proved no more effective than other methods had been in the past. Thus social and political discontents were very much present in the post-emergency India. It became harder for the government with the increase in smuggling, strikes and social protests. Moreover, no satisfactory solution was produced that insured the Indian people and the democratic institutions that they will not be threatened by Emergency again. In response to this, the Shah commission was appointed by the new government on May 28th 1977. The commission inquired into the allegations of abuse of authority and the malpractices during the emergency period. The commission found that Indira Gandhi had been motivated by considerations of exigency, as there was no concrete evidence that could warrant the declaration of emergency. She never consulted the cabinet with her decisions and the citizens were denied their basic freedom.
Charges against the Government during the Emergency Era:
- Wanton detention of innocent people by police without charge or notification of families.
- Abuse and torture of detainees and political prisoners.
- Use of public and private media institutions, like the national television network Doordarshan, for propaganda.
- Forced vasectomy of thousands of men under the infamous family planning initiative. Indira’s son, Sanjay Gandhi, was blamed for this abusive and forcible treatment of people.
- Arbitrary destruction of the slum and low-income housing in the Turkman Gate and Jama masjid area of old Delhi.
Taking these findings into consideration, the Janata government’s Home Minister, Choudhary Charan Singh ordered the arrest of Indira and Sanjay Gandhi. The arrest meant that Indira was automatically expelled from Parliament. However, this strategy backfired disastrously. Her arrest and long-running trial, gained her great sympathy from many people who had feared her as a tyrant just two years earlier. Mrs. Gandhi succeeded in defying both the courts and the government over the alleged improprieties committed even before the emergency. She began giving speeches again, tacitly apologizing for “mistakes” made during the Emergency, thus proceeding with her political comeback in the backdrop of the crumbling rule of the Janata party. This set up the stage for the 1980 elections, which brought Indira Gandhi back to the office.
- The term Dalit was used for 1st time by Jyotirao Phule around mid of 19th Century to refer to class of untouchable who have suffered immensely by hands of upper class since ages.
- Dalit form the lowest section of society. This section of population was there in whole of India from Punjab (29%) to South.
- Beginning around middle of 19th Century the movement for upliftment of Dalit also commenced along with fight against Bhimrao Ambedkar, Jayprakash Narayan were most prominent early leaders. He started schools for advertisement of Dalit.
- Shri Narayan Guru was a prominent leader of Dalits in Kerala He started SNDP. Justice party was formed for political upliftment of Dalit in Madras presidency.
- Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi fought continuously against evil of untouchability & he coined word “Harijan” to refer to Dalit.
- BR. Ambedkar emerged as most prominent Dalit leader during 1930.
- He believed that political empowerment is the key to upliftment of Dalits.
- BR. Ambedkar demanded sep. electorate for Dalit during round table confer. The communal award announced by Bengal Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald Aug 1932 granted September.
- Grant of September electorate for these classes was strongly opposed by MKG because he was believed that it was experience of British policy to divide & rule, electorate granted to Muslim in 1909 to divide Indian on religion & grant to September electorate for Dalit cadre.
- Gandhi went on fast until death to oppose C. award, the issue settled in Puna pact Sept 1932 through congress agree to leave 148 seats for Dalits in legislative council in place of 71 provided in communal awards.
- This fight for Dalit uplift continued even after freedom.
Prominent Dalit Movement
Independent Labor Party
- It was established in 1936 – 1st Independent party of Dalit
- Established by Bhimrao Ambedkar who believed that the path of emulsification of Dalit passing through politics. Political empowerment cadre as precondition for their all-around upliftment.
All India SC federation (AISCF)
- It was established by Bhimrao Ambedkar in 1942 as political organization for Dalit.
- This party established to unite untouchable under one bower so that their political right could be secured.
- The main purpose of AISCF was to bring all Dalits on common platform, so that their interest could be saved & eradicate untouchability.
- AISCF was strong opponent of Congress. It was created as Rebel organization to Congress to challenge the claim of Congress as representative of Dalit.
Independent Labor Party
- It was the 1st Political Party of Dalit established after independence on 1957. Objective of party was to organize & to fight against atrocity.
- It raised issue concerning Dalit & demanded social eco-empowerment of Dalit shall be ensured by government by suitable action.
Dalit Panther Movement (DPM)
- Emerge as de-integration of RPI in 1970.
- Inspire efforts made by Dalit government Dalit in Maharashtra suffering from social aversion. DPM proclaimed all trios victim of social-eco suppression are our dies. Power – money prestige are our enemies. Panther movement based on ideology of Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar but later on it got inclined with leftism.
Backward & Minorities Comm. Employ Federation
- It was established by Kanshiram in 1973 that emerged as prominent leader of Dalit in 1970.
- Main objective of this organization was to the upliftment & empowerment of Dalit.
Dalit Soshit Samaj Sangharsh Samiti
- Established in 1981 by Kanshiram as non-political agitation of BACEF. It’s primary purpose– awareness to Dalit. Its constituent was unemployed Dalit, engineer, lawyer who could provide leadership who could spread awareness among Dalit.
Bahujan Samaj Party
- Established in 1984 by Kanshiram to fulfill aspiration (political) of Dalit.
- This party adopted ideology of Bhimrao Ambedkar & very soon it emerged as main banner in Dalit in NL.
- This movement was started for upliftment of Dalit during 1920 but Dalit leaders of Punjab such as Vasant Rai & Thakur Chand.
- The main objective of this movement was to established distinct identity of Dalit in India so that stigma of untouchability could be removed.
- This movement rejected Hinduism, Sikhism and Islam.
- It gained immense popularity in Punjab.
- Started by Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar in Maharashtra for upliftment of Maharashtra community, a major untouchable cost of Maharashtra.
- Maharashtra was facing socio-economic operation since ages at the hands of upper cost of area.
- They were not allowed to take water from public wealth.
- Social isolation imposed in them by the dominant caste.
- Ambedkar fought upliftment throughout their life.
- Initially, Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar tried to ensure upliftment of Maharashtra within fold of Hindus but when Hindu society failed to response to needs and aspiration of Maharashtra committee to adopt Buddhism which was free from evils of caste & untouchability.
ECONOMIC CRISIS, 1991
Towards the end of 1980s, India was facing a Balance of Payments (BoP) crisis, due to unsustainable borrowing and high expenditure. The Current Account Deficit (3.5 percent) in 1990-91 massively weakened the ability to finance deficit.
Macroeconomic Indicators and Balance of Payments Situation in 1990-1991:
- The trade deficit increased from Rs. 12,400 crore in 1989-90 to Rs. 16,900 crore in 1990-91.
- The current account deficit increased from Rs. 11,350 crore in 1989-90 to Rs. 17,350 crore in 1990-91.
- The CAD/GDP ratio increased from 2.3 in 1989-90 to 3.1 percent in 1990-91. Besides this, the fiscal deficit to GDP ratio was more than 7 percent during the two years 1989-90 and 1990-91. The foreign exchange reserves, meant to cover import costs for two years (1989-1991),were just sufficient to cover close to two and half months of imports.
- The average rate of inflation was 7.5 percent in 1989-90, which went up to 10 percent in the year 1990-91. In 1991-92, it crossed 13 percent. The GDP growth rate which was 6.5 percent in 1989-90, went down to 5.5 percent in 1990-91.
- The Balance of Payments crisis also affected the performance of industrial sector. The average industrial growth rate was 8 percent in the second half of 1980s. In 1989-90, it was 8.6 percent and in 1990-91 it was 8.2 percent.
- India’s foreign exchange reserves stood at Rs. 5,277 crore on 31 December 1989, which declined to Rs. 2,152 crore by the end of December 1990. Between May and July 1991, these reserves ranged between Rs. 2,500 crore to 3,300 crore.
Main Causes of Economic Crisis:
The main causes behind the Balance of Payments crisis of 1990-91 were as follows:
- Break-up of the Soviet Bloc:Rupee trade (payment for trade was made in rupees) with the Soviet Bloc was an important element of India’s total trade up to the 1980s. However, the introduction of Glasnost and Perestroika and the break-up of the Eastern European countries led to termination of several rupee payment agreements in 1990-91. As a consequence, the flow of new rupee trade credits declined abruptly in 1990-91. Further, there was also a decline in our exports to Eastern Europe—these exports constituted 22 .1 percent of total exports in 1980 and 19.3 percent in 1989; but they declined to 17.9 percent in 1990-91 and further to 10.9 percent in 1991-92.
- Iraq-Kuwait War:The Gulf crisis began with the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq at the beginning of August 1990. Crude oil prices rose rapidly thereafter–from USD 15 per barrel in July 1990 to USD 35 per barrel in October 1990. Iraq and Kuwait were the major sources of India’s oil imports and the war made it necessary to buy oil from the spot market. Short term purchases from the spot market had to be followed up by new long term contracts at higher prices. As a result, the oil import bill increased by about 60 percent in 1990-91 and remained 40 percent above the 1989-90 level the next year. As noted in Economic Survey (1991-92):
The immediate cause of the loss of reserves beginning in September 1990 was a sharp rise in the imports of oil and petroleum products (from an average of $ 287 million in June-August 1990, petroleum products imports rose sharply to $ 671 million in 6 months). This accounted for rise in trade deficit from an average of $ 356 million per month in June-August 1990 to $ 677 million per month in the following 6 months.”
- Slow Growth of Important Trading Partners:The deterioration of the current account was also induced by slow growth in economies of important trading partners. Export markets were weak in the period leading up to India’s crisis, as the world growth declined steadily from 4.5 percent in 1988 to 2.25 percent in 1991. The decline was even greater for the U.S., India’s single largest export destination. In the United States, growth fell from 3.9 percent in 1988 to 0.8 percent in 1990 and to -1 percent in 1991.
- Political Uncertainty and Instability:The period from November 1989 to May 1991 was marked with political uncertainty and instability in India. In fact, within a span of one and half years there were three coalition governments and three Prime Ministers. This led to delay in tackling the ongoing balance of payment crisis, and also led to a loss of investor confidence.
- Loss of Investors’ Confidence:The widening current account deficits and reserve losses contributed to low investor confidence, which was further weakened by political uncertainty. This was aggravated by the downgrade of India’s credit rating by credit rating agencies. By March 1991, the International Credit Rating agencies Standard & Poor’s, and Moody’s, had downgraded India’s long term foreign debt rating to the bottom of investment grade. Due to the loss of investors’ confidence, commercial bank financing became hard to obtain, and outflows began to take place on short-term external debt, as creditors became reluctant to roll over maturing loans.
- Fiscal Indiscipline:The Economic Survey (1991-92) had categorically remarked that:
“Throughout the eighties, all the important indicators of fiscal imbalances were on the rise. These were the conventional budgetary deficit, the revenue deficit, the monetized deficit and gross fiscal deficit. Moreover, the concept of fiscal deficit is a more complete measure of macroeconomic imbalance as it reflects the indebtedness of the Government. This gross fiscal deficit of the Central Government has been more than 8 percent of GDP since 1985 – 86, as compared with 6 percent in the beginning of 1980s and 4 percent in the mid – 1970s.”
- Increase in Non-oil Imports:The trends in imports and exports show that imports rose much faster than exports during the eighties. Imports increased by 2.3 percent of GDP, while exports increased by only 0.3 percent of GDP. As a consequence, trade deficit increased from an average of 1.2 percent of GDP in the seventies, to 3.2 percent of GDP in eighties.
Oil and Non- Oil Imports (In Rs. Crores)
- Rise in External Debt:In the second half of the 1980s, the current account deficit was showing a rising trend and was becoming unsustainable. An important issue was the way in which this deficit was being financed. The current account deficit was mainly financed with costly sources of external finance such as external commercial borrowings, NRI deposits, etc.
Thus, the balance of payments situation came to the verge of collapse in 1991, mainly because the current account deficits were mainly financed by borrowing from abroad. The economic situation of India was critical; the government was close to default. With India’s foreign exchange reserves at USD 1.2 billion in January 1991 and depleted by half by June, an amount barely enough to cover roughly three weeks of essential imports, India was only weeks way from defaulting on its external balance of payment obligations.
Government of India’s immediate response was to secure an emergency loan of USD 2.2 billion from the International Monetary Fund by pledging 67 tons of India’s gold reserves as collateral. The Reserve Bank of India had to airlift 47 tons of gold to the Bank of England and 20 tons of gold to the Union Bank of Switzerland to raise USD 600 million.
These moves helped tide over the balance of payment crisis temporarily and kick-started P V Narasimha Rao’s economic reform process.