Police Reforms – 6 dec update





Changing Policing Trends

  • crime, today
    • has become ‘real-time’ 
      • terrorism
      • cyber crime
    • it is getting increasingly difficult to identify the perpetrators
      • ‘crime prevention’ is fading into oblivion
  • real-time crime ⇒ near-real-time policing is required
    • policing, today, has acquired a sense of ‘immediacy’
  • initiative is dying in Police leadership
    • the institution is flailing
    • it has become too ‘mechanical’ in the face of ‘sophisticated’ crime
    • hired goons are having a field day


Silver Lining

  • Ingenious ideas of dynamic IPS offrs 
    • to improve service-delivery in large cities
  • Gallantry at cutting-edge level
    • eg. during 2008 Mumbai attacks
  • Final word
    • despite occasional sparks, there exists an inertia to experiment with novel ideas towards improving policing


Evidence-based Policing (EBP)

  • mvmt launched a decade ago
    • in both USA and the UK
    • is gaining currency by the day
  • EBP can help improve
    • ‘prediction’ and ‘planning’
    • by accurately identifying potential crime ‘hot spots’ and ‘offenders’


Status of Policing in India

  • Lagging police-population ratio
    • global avg
      • 270 policemen per 1 lakh population
    • national avg
      • 143
    • india’s most populous state – UP
      • 91
  • excessive political interference
    • in day-to-day functioning
  • selection procedure
    • rampant corruption (bribery)
    • often attempts at infiltrating the police with ruling party cadres
  • lack of professional conduct
    • Insensitivity towards the victim
    • human rights violations
    • compromised integrity
    • delayed response
    • bias towards the majority community (UP)
  • Poor criminal administration



  • political will
    • for implementing police reforms
    • for providing operational autonomy
    • commitment towards efficient and effective policing
  • Recruitment
    • fair and deadline-oriented
    • through written examination
  • Teaching policing in Indian universities



  • rising Intolerance today ⇒ Police ⇒ Rule of Law ⇒ Democracy



  1. ‘Police’ is said to be in a shambles in India today. Comment.



Modernisation of Police Forces (MPF) Scheme

  1. GoI has approved
    • Rs 25k crore internal security scheme (centre to fund 75%)
  2. Objective
    • to strengthen the law and order apparatus, modernise state police forces and enhance their capacity to combat terrorism.
  3.  Will be implemented
    • between 2017 and 2020.
  4. The scheme has special provisions for
    • women’s security, mobility of police forces, logistical support, hiring of helicopters, upgradation of police wireless, satellite communications, crime and criminal tracking network and systems (CCTNS) and e-prisons.
  5. 14th Finance Cmsn (FC)
    • had increased the state’s share of central taxes from 32 per cent to 42 per cent
    • Thus, Centre de-linked 8 centrally sponsored schemes (CSS) from its support in 2015 including those related to modernisation of police.
    • But the pre-14th FC mode (of financing) had to be revived as majority states did not invest in their police, which led to falling performance, especially against Maoists.
  6. The PM, in Nov 2014, had enunciated the concept of SMART Police.
    1. Smartness has two dimensions 
      • external and internal.
    2. ‘External dimension’ includes 
      • the uniform a policeman wears, the way he carries himself, his weapons, the communication equipment on his person, his mobility, response time, etc
    3. The ‘internal dimension’
      • As the PM expanded the acronym, the police should be strict and sensitive, modern and mobile, alert and accountable, reliable and responsible, tech-savvy and trained.
  7. The MPF
    • will bolster the external dimension, but not the internal one.
    • We cannot have a ‘sensitive’ police under the existing dispensation when the police are answerable to the political executive.
  8. Way forward
    • Convert the ‘Ruler’s Police’ into ‘People’s Police’. Accountability has to be to the Constitution, the laws of the land and the people of the country.
    • The roadmap for the same was laid down by the Supreme Court in 2006 – Prakash Singh Judgement.
  9. Final word
    • sustained economic progress needs the solid foundation of good law and order, and we cannot have good law and order in the country unless the police are reorganised, restructured and rejuvenated.



  1. The Modernisation of Police Forces scheme is a step in the right direction. Analyse.
  2. Lack of political will is the biggest hurdle to substantial police reforms. Comment. 100 words.
  3. Accountability, not armour plating, is the need of the hour. Comment.