Swaraj Party was formed as great within the party by leaders like Motilal Nehru, Chittaranjan Das in 1923. It was the outcome of a sense of disillusionment created by the sudden withdrawal of the Non-Cooperation Movement.
As a result of the sudden withdrawal of the Non-Cooperation Movement in February 1922, a large section of Indian Nationalists had lost faith inefficacy of the Gandhian movement of struggle. They started believing that the Gandhian Movement could never succeed because that movement was withdrawal at a time of its peak.
These differences emerged strongly at the Gaya session of congress in December 1922 over the issue of participation of congress in forthcoming general elections. Leaders of congress got divided into two groups wise no change & pro-change over this issue. Vallabhai Patel and Dr. Rajendra Prasad were prominent leaders of no change camp. CR Das & Motilal Nehru were prominent leaders of pro changer camp.
No changes were closer followers of Gandhi while pro changers didn’t have faith in the Gandhian movement of that time. No changes were against the participation of Congress in the forthcoming election because Gandhiji was in favor of the continuation of the policy of Non-Cooperation with British Rule.
Pro changers wanted to participate in for coming election because they wanted to carry the politics of the Non-Cooperation Movement inside the legislature. The no changers were the majority in congress therefore congress decided to boycott the forthcoming election. The pro changers formed a group with the name “All India congress khilafat Swaraj party” within congress to participate in forthcoming elections.
Even though first-generation Politian & they got very little time to prepare for election they achieved significant success. Swaraj Party wan majority in central provinces. It emerges as a domination party in Bengal. It was an influential party in North West Province, Punjab.
In the central legislative assembly Swaraj 42/101 seats. Swarajist followed the strategy of promoting national agenda & blocking anti-national resolution inside the legislation by joining hands with like-minded groups.
Swarajist exposed the hollowness system of diarchy introduced at the provincial level by an act of 1919 because still, real power was in Government & Governor-general. Pressure mounted by Swarajist compelled the government to appoint a committee of Alexander Muddiman committee in 1924 to review the fan of diarchy.
The greatest significance of Swarajist lay in the fact that they provided an alternative strategy to Indians to fight against British Rule. The sense of disillusion created by the sudden withdrawal of the Non-cooperation Movement couldn’t affect mass moral because they could continue their struggle against British Rule by participating in activities of Swarajist.
The experience gained by Swarajist by participating in elections helped in bringing about political maturity in India. As a result, this Indian could fight effectively with greater success against British Rule in the future.
Factors behind the Decline of Swarajist
Swarajist started their political carrier with great enthusiasm but by 1926 they had lost eastern. This was a lack of experience as part of Swarajist & mistakes committed by them. Some of the activities of Swarajist gave the impression as if they were co-operating with the government
In 1925, Vitthal Bhai Patel accepted the office of the speaker of the central legislative assembly. 1925, Motilal Nehru became a member of the sheen committee appointed to suggest steps for Indianization of the Army. This act of co-operating dated the credibility of Swarajist & affected their mass appeal.
The death of CR Das in June 1925 came as a big blow to Swarajist; he was the most popular leader of the Swaraj Party. The appointment of the Simon Commission in November 1927 changed the character of the political environment prevailing in India. It took sheen away from Swarajist their activities were no longer reflecting mass sentiments, realizing this Swarajist abundant their separate line of nationalist activities & join hand with mainstream congress to participate in anti-Simon Commission agitate.