Geomorphology is the study of physical properties of the earth and its surface and relating those studies with the formation of geological structures is known as Geomorphology. The external and internal forces that cause stress and chemical action on the land surface which brings changes in the configuration of the surface of the earth are termed geomorphic processes.

Forces Operating Formation of Landforms

Types of forces for the formation of Landform

There are two types of forces operating the formation of landforms.

  1. Endogenetic Forces: These forces originate from a point deep inside the earth. These forces are expressed on the surface of the earth.
  2. Exogenetic Forces: These forces are working under the influence of the gravity of the earth. These forces are involved in reducing and diminishing the irregularities on the surface of the earth.

Types of Endogenetic Forces

Based on the duration of expression on the surfaces of the earth these are classified into 2 types as under:

  1. Catastrophic Forces 
  2. Diastrophic Forces

Catastrophic Forces

The concept of catastrophic forces is equivalent to the concept of revolution in social science and mutation in Biology. The expression on the surface of the earth is for a short duration. The changes they induce on the surface of the earth are massive. The example includes earthquakes and volcanoes.

However, these forces are accumulated dup inside the earth over a long period. The expression of forces over the surface of the earth is for a very long period stretching for tens of thousands to millions of years. These forces are slow and gradual. For example, include the formation of the Himalaya.

Diastrophic Forces

This force is gradually slow in movement and can be noted in the case of the formation of the Mountains and local movement of the tectonic plates. These forces are further divided into two types which are further explained below:


In the next section, we will learn about types of Rocks and the Lithosphere so that we could clear every doubt related to geomorphology in a stepwise manner.

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