There are many theories about the Origin of the Universe but as we all know that not all theories can be entertained in the field of technicality and science. Most of the theory about the origin of the universe is based on religious beliefs of various religions and land nowhere about practicality and lacks evidence as well. However, we start discussing evidence to any of the theories given, then no one can provide the most prominent evidence about the origin of the Universe.
Origin of Universe: Big bang theory
The big bang theory is the most accepted theory regarding the origin of the universe. It was given by the scientist F.F Friedman who discovered that the universe is expanding. To prove his concept he used relative field equations. The Big Bang theory explains the origin of the Universe. Big Bang theory says that all heavenly bodies and systems were originated at the same time from the common lineage of matter. This tells that the Universe and the solar system are about 13.7 billion years old. At the time before the origin, all matter and energy were compacted in a very small ball (which might be smaller than the size of an atom).
This is the era when no matter, energy, space, and time were existent. Suddenly that ball started to expand and released an incredible amount of matter, energy, space, and time. The further expansion of that substance created the Universe. Coalesces of matter and energy have formed gas clouds, stars, and planets. There are many contradictions and dissatisfaction with this theory. In spite of a lot of dissatisfaction, the big bang theory is widely accepted among astronomers.
Before and After the Big Bang
The most dissatisfactory concept related to the Big Bang theory was an improper explanation of conditions before the Big Bang. Big Bang theory is assumption-based, so the models explaining before and after the big bang are also assumption-based only. There is no model or theory which can successfully explain how the universe looks like before the big bang. The contradiction also hovers around the concept of a small compacted atom-sized ball that has expanded in such a large-shaped Universe. This is purely contradictory and yet to be supported by any relevant evidence.
However, there is a theory named ‘inflationary universe” that tells us that all of space was filled with a concentrated, unstable form of energy that triggered the big bang for the formation of matter and the Universe. However, the existence of that particular energy remains unexplained in this model. The expansion of that atom, the cooling process of the universe initiated to allow the formation of sub-atomic particles (electrons, protons, photons, and neutrons). The nuclei were formed within the first three minutes of the big bang but it might have taken thousands of years for the formation of the first electrically neutral atoms. The atoms which might have formed just after the big bang were hydrogen, helium, and lithium.
Later, the Big Bang theory was supported by Edwin Hubble, an American astrophysicist. He gave the concept of Red Shift which later on came to be known as Hubble’s Law. He gave this theory based on observations he made on “Cepheids” (also known as stars). He said that characteristic colors or spectral lines emitted by stars in galaxies do not have the same wavelength observed in the laboratory. Rather, they are systematically shifted to longer wavelengths i.e. towards the Red end of the spectrum. Such Redshift could occur because the other galaxies are moving away from our galaxy Milky Way. This theory was given in 1929.
In 1965 cosmic “Microwave Background Radiation” was discovered by Penzias and Robert Wilson. Those are high-frequency radio waves that are thought to be leftover radiation of the previous exploitation i.e., the Big Bang.
Galaxy: A huge group of Stars
Galaxies are a huge group of stars. A single galaxy has a billion stars. Galaxies are categorized based on their shape viz: Elliptical Galaxy: It has an egg-like shape, Spiral Galaxy: It is spiral. Our galaxy i.e., the Milky way in a spiral in shape, and Irregular Shape: No irregular Shape. Our galaxy is 10000 million light-years wide and 1,00,000 million light-years long.
Stars: Burning Disk of Gases
Stars are burning disks of gases, mainly Hydrogen. Our sun was originated almost 4.5-5 billion years ago and it is supposed to survive for the next 5.5 billion years. The HERTZ-RUSSEL-BERGSCHRUND diagram is used for the classification of stars. It is a graph on which the brightness of the star is plotted. Sun is the type g2 main-sequence star on these criteria. The visible layer of our sun is called Photosphere. The above the photosphere is the layer called Chromosphere and the topmost layer is called Corona which becomes visible only during the eclipse.
The fate of our sun: it will take almost 5.5 billion more years to exhaust its entire Hydrogen and it will enter the phase of Red Giant and it will swell up and occupy the orbits of Mercury and Venus coming close to the Earth. After a further period of 1 billion years as a Red Giant, it will turn into White Dwarf. The size of the sun in that stage will be reduced to the size of the earth.
To decide the future of any star, the Chandrashekhar limit is used worldwide. According to this, stars having mass up to 1.4 times that of our sun or less than that forms white dwarf, and stars having a move of 3-4 times or greater than the sun forms a black hole.
Black holes of Space
These are interesting spots in the Universe which are known for their intensive gravity which does not allow even light to escape. The center of the blacklight hole is called the core which is squeezed to a dot or point of singularity.
The first layer outride the outride they are is called event zone load activity. Light cannot escape from there. Beyond the activity zone, there is an Ergosphere where nothing can stop itself. It has to rotate in the opposite direction with the speed of light to remain stationary.
Artificial Sun- The Thermonuclear Energy program
To overcome the problem of energy security, the international community is running a program that is a scientific research program called ITER- International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. This is in a place south of France near the French-Italy border called Cadrich.
This program was started in 2007 and the countries that are contributing are European Union China, Japan, India, U.S, and South Korea & Russia. The largest contributor is the European Union with 46% of total finance.
- The Hydrogen isotope is available on our earth in abundance.
- Deuterium isotope could be extracted from the oceans.
- Tritium shall be taken from the nuclear fusion reactor itself.
- The disposal of nuclear waste of the nuclear fusion reactor is relatively much easier than the nuclear wastes of the conventional nuclear reactors. Nuclear fusion research was started in 2007 and the first plasma is expected to come by the year 2020.