At the time of Indian Independence, the level of Socio-education was very low because India had suffered immensely during 200 years of British colonial rule. After 1947, there were many important things that need to be resolved such as maintaining good relations with other nations. This could only be done after maintaining a good foreign policy in the government for other nations. After attaining freedom from British Rule, the Government of India took several serious steps for eco-education science advancement. The institution created during the Nehruvian era is commonly known as temples of modern India.
Some Important Establishments
The planning commission was established in 1950. National development council in 1952. These initiatives paved way for a planned economic way for India. With the help of foreign assistance, several industrial plants were established. Rourkela steel plant 1955 with West German assistance. Durgapur steel plant 1962 with British assistance. Bokaro steel plant 1964 with the Soviet Union (USSR). Bhilai steel plant 1967 with the Soviet Union (USSR). IIT’s began to be established by the Government of India in 1951. IIT Kharagpur was opened in August 1951. These institutions are based on the American model of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
In 1961, the Government of India enacted the institute of Technology Act which declared IIT’s as an institution of national importance. Atomic energy was established at Trombay in 1954. University Grant Commission was created in 1953. It granted statuary recognition in 1956. To pave way for space research, the Indian Space Research Organization was established in 1969. The multipurpose project formed an important chapter towards made all-around.
Damodar Valley cooperation in July 1948 came into existence in July 1948 benefited Jharkhand, West Bengal. Bhakra Nangal Dam begins to construction in 1948. It was dedicated to the nation in Oct 1963 by Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru. At the time opening ceremony of this claim, Nehru commented that the claim has been built with unrelenting soil of men for benefit of man.
Indian Foreign Issues Policy
India emerged as an independent nation in 1947 as a result of which Indian leadership got the opportunity to formulate & implement the national food policy. Fundamentals of Indian Foreign Policy having shaped by geopolitical realities, domestic needs & international environments. The geopolitical realities prevailing in Indian neighborhoods in the immediate term & the world as a whole influenced Indian Foreign Policy greatly.
Independent India had to adjust to the external hostile neighborhoods since neighbors can’t be changed; the government of India had formulated its Foreign Policy so that challenges posed by a neighbor can be handling successfully. The bitter memories of the colonial rule also shaped colonial policy because India had suffered enormously during two centuries of British Rule. The government of India was concerned about the implication of colonialism & imperialism, because of this Independent India always supported the right to self-determination of different groups & nationalities.
Ever since India Independent government always opposed colonialism & imperialism. The fundamental Indian cultural value such as the belief in mutual respect. Emphasized peaceful co-existence and non-interference in international matters of others have also shaped Foreign Policy.
The needs of Indian socio-economic advertisement have also influenced the Indian relationship with other countries. The level of socio-economic advertisement was very low at the time of Independence. There was an urgent need to seek co-operation from other nations to the maximum possible extent. The government of India used Foreign Policy to achieve this objective.
Destruction & devastation left behind by World War convinced Indian leaders that the peaceful resolution of International disputes & differences is the only way out. Wars & battles were going in the world in different form convinced Indian leadership that this armament it’s a necessity in war level & without this, the future of humanity always remain of stake.
The principles of the United Nations charter also left a lasting influence on Indian Foreign Policy because India was one of the founding members of the United Nations Organization. Cold war hostilities, prevailing in the world also influenced Indian Foreign Policy. The 2 superpowers were busy in a serious indirect conflict to ensure domination of their ideology. The Government of India formulated its Foreign Policy in such a way so that India could remain away from the evil effects of cold war competition.
Extension aggression faced by India during the early decades after Indian independence also affects Indian Foreign Policy. India had to suffer a humiliating defeat by China in 1962. This defeat made Indian Leaders much more pragmatic. The desire of the independent Government of India to have an Independent stand on international matters also affected Indian Foreign Policy. Independent India is very concerned about the necessity to present its view put on bilateral & multilateral platforms without getting any influence by any extension power. This desire compelled India to join hands with like-minded nations at different forums.
Fundamental Features of Indian Foreign Policy
Indian Foreign Policy is characterized by a firm belief in the idea of internationalism. Ever since Independent from British Rule, India had participated actively in international matters so that spirit of co-operation should be strengthened. Ideas of Panchsheel have been an important feature of Indian Foreign Policy since Independence. These 5 principles of Panchsheel are Mutual respect, Mutual non-interference, Peaceful co-existence, Respect for sovereignty, and Equality in mutual benefit. Emphasis on disarmament was an important feature of Indian Foreign Policy.
Indian Foreign Policy is also characterized by the use of soft power instead of threatening others. Other has always relied on the use of positive cultural influence to safeguard Indian national interest. Non-alignment was an also important feature of Indian Foreign Policy because India didn’t want to become part of cold war politics. The opposition of colonialism & importance had been an important component of Indian Foreign Policy from the very beginning.
The belief in peaceful resolution in dispute had also characterized because India believes that wars & battles complicate matters instead of resolving them. Indian Foreign Policy was also characterized by elements of continuity & change. During the early year of Independence, idealism was more dominant in Indian Foreign Policy. But gradually a pragmatic outlook started guiding Indian Foreign Policy relation.