Indian Polity

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The Indian Polity is the most important subject for getting good marks in UPSC Prelims GS-1.  Polity refers to an organized group, such as a nation, state, city, even a social group together with its government and administration. Before starting the subject in detail, we are providing you some important key terms related to Indian Polity.

Some important terms related to this subject

Act-A Bill passed by both Houses of Parliament and assented to by the President.

Law-The term ‘law’ in general refers to the set of regulations or rules to be followed. Law can be in the form of an act, ordinance, order, by-laws, rule, regulation, etc. An act is a subset of law.

Coalition– An alliance of people, associations, parties, or nations. This alliance may be ad hoc or a matter of convenience.

Martial Law- A system of rules that effects when a military authority takes control of the normal administration of justice.

Referendum- A direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. This may be the adoption of a new constitution, law, or specific government policy.

Veto– The word comes from Latin, which means ‘I Forbid’. A veto gives unlimited power to stop decisions. It is the right of a person, party, or nation to stop a certain decision or law, but not to adopt one.

Rule of law– It is a doctrine that holds that no individual is above the law and everyone regardless of their social status is equal before the law.

Republic- A state in which power is held by the people and their elected representatives and which has an elected president as head of state rather than a monarch.

Bicameral- Government with two houses of the legislature. Like in India we have Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha.

Unicameral– Government with one house of the legislature. Like in Punjab there is only a legislative assembly .so it is Unicameral.

Adjournment of Debate- Adjournment on a motion adopted by the House, of the debate on a Motion/Resolution/Bill on which the House is then engaged until a future day or sine die as specified in the motion.

Ballot– A process to determine inter se priority of more than one notice through a draw of lot.

Bill-The draft of a legislative proposal put in the proper form which, when passed by both Houses of Parliament and assented to by the President becomes an Act.

Budget- Annual financial statement of the estimated receipts and expenditure of the Government of India in respect of a financial year. The Budget is laid in Rajya Sabha in two parts viz., the Railway Budget and the General Budget.

Bulletin-Bulletin means the Bulletin of Rajya Sabha. It is published in two parts. Part I contains a brief record of the proceedings of the House at each of its sittings; and Part II contains information on any matter relating to or connected with the business of the House or Committees or other matter which in the opinion of the Chairman may be included therein.

Finance Bill-A Bill ordinarily introduced every year to give effect to the financial proposals of the Government of India for the following financial year and includes a Bill to give effect to supplementary financial proposals for any period.

Gazette-The Gazette of India.

Leader of the Council-The Prime Minister, if he is a member of the Council or a Minister who is a member of the Council and is nominated by the Prime Minister to function as the Leader of the Council.

Leader of the Opposition-A Member of the House, who is, for the time being, the leader in that House of the Party in opposition to the Government having the greatest numerical strength and recognized as such by the Chairman.

Maiden Speech-The first speech of a member after his election/nomination to the Rajya Sabha in the House.

Ordinance-A law made by the President in the exercise of the powers vested in him under article 123 of the Constitution.

Prorogation-The termination of a session of Rajya Sabha by an order made by the President under article 85(2)(a) of the Constitution.

Quorum-The minimum number of members required to be present at a sitting of the House or a Committee for valid transaction of its business, which is one-tenth of the total number of members of the House, as provided under Article 100(3) of the Constitution.

Session -A session of Rajya Sabha comprises the period commencing from the date and time mentioned in the order of the President summoning Rajya Sabha and ending with the day on which the President prorogues Rajya Sabha.

Summon – An official communication issued by the General Secretary of Rajya Sabha under the orders of the President to the Members of Rajya Sabha informing them of  place, date, and time of the commencement of a session of Rajya Sabha.

Valedictory remarks – It is customary in every Session for the Chair to make the Valedictory remarks at the end of the Session thanking Members and leaders of parties and groups for their cooperation in the conduct of the business of the House.

Whips – It is a wriiten notice to the all members from the party in power and the parties/groups in opposition to perform specified functions such as voting for passing several laws and motions and form vital links in the internal organization of a party inside Parliament.

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