Green, White and Blue Revolution



1967-68 under the guidance of M.S. Swaminathan who is known as the father of Green Revolution in India.

Note Globally, Green Revolution was started with the development of Dwarf wheat, a HYV developed by the agricultural scientist Norman Boraugh who was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for contribution to World Food Severity in 1970.

Pre-conditions before introduction of Green Revolution

The 2nd & 3rd Five Year Plan had over-emphasized on the industrialization of Indian economy. Rural and agricultural sector was stagnant. Meanwhile, India had suffered from successive draught(S) in 1964-65 and 1965-66. India was forced to bay food grains from the international market, especially through PL-480 [Public Law-480]. It was United States Of America’s Fodd Aid Programme to influence the ‘foreign’ & domestic policies of developing countries.

Objectives of Green Revolution:

  1. Improving production and productivity of food.
  2. Developing food security and self-reliance in respect of food production.
  3. Improving income, employment & wages.
  4. Improving rural infrastructure & rural development.



The 2nd Green Revolution was planned to sustain agricultural production & productivity through conservation of natural and environmental resources most importantly through Soil & Water Conservation

The important components of Second Generation Green revolution are:

  1. Crop diversification
  2. Development of Forest cover & Grasslands
  3. Dairy Farming
  4. Horticulture

In those regions which have experienced success in Green Revolution.

Expansion of Green Revolution beyond traditional regions like towards East and drought prone regions through assured water supply and modernization of agriculture.

Conservation of soil and water resources through complimenting chemical based agriculture with organic agriculture like use of Compost, Vermi-Compost, Bio-Fertilizers, Bio-Insecticides & Pesticides.

Use of water and soil resources to be according to their potentialities. Thus, crop combinations and agricultural activities are selected and introduced on the basis of carrying capacity of soil and water resources. For example,

  1. Introduction of Horticulture in Northern European Hills as are alternative to Jhum Cultivation.
  2. Introduction of cultivation of Oilseeds, Pulses, Millets, Horticulture and Forestry in Semi dry and dry regions.





Introduced in 1970 by Verghese Kurien. He is known as the Father of White Revolution.


  • Improving milk production & productivity
  • Improving per capita per day availability of milk
  • Creation of additional employment and income.
  • Improving rural infrastructure and development

Strategy & Implementation

NDDB (National Dairy Development Board): The Programme was implemented through Operation Flood. Cooperatives like AMUL (Anand Milk Union Limited) were established.


Achievements of White Revolution:

  • India is the largest producer of milk.
  • Per Capita per day availability of milk is now more than 280 grams / person / day.

Strategy of Implementation: The programme was flagged off by ICAR. The programme was implemented through the introduction of the following four modern inputs for crop production:

  • Improved seeds
  • Assured water supply
  • Chemical fertilizers, insecticides & pesticides
  • Machines

These 4 inputs are introduced together. This is why Green Revolution is also called Package Technology.

Achievements of Green Revolution:

  • India is now the 2nd largest producer of rice & wheat in the world.
  • Now India mountains food security with large production and a large buffer stock.
  • There has been improvement in the income of farmers, employment level and wages.
  • Green Revolution has supported rural infrastructure, rural development, urbanization and industrialization. The entire industrialization and urbanization of NCR region has been supported by rural & agriculture of prosperity of Punjab, Haryana and Western , U.P.

Problem Areas of Green Revolution:

Green revolution is criticized on the basis of economic limitations and environmental costs.

Economic limitations: success is limited in terms of crops, into in terms of geographical location and sections of farmers.

  • Limitations In Terms Of Crops: Green Revolution is advantageous to wheat, rice & cotton. Production of crops like jowar, bajra, ragi and pulses is stagnated. These are infact rainfed crops. Whenever irrigation is not facilitated, they suffer.
  • Geographical Limitation: The success of Green Revolution is limited to PUNJAB, HARYANA, WEST UP and Coastal regions which have assured water supply through irrigation. It is a contributing factor to regional imbalances.
  • Limitations Due To Section of Farmers: Green revolution has been mainly beneficial to rich famous at the cost of subsidies provided by the government. It is a source of inter-personal inequality in the villages.
  • Environmental Cost: Green Revolution has been responsible for deforestation, overuse of chemical fertilizers, insecticides & pesticides, water pollution, water lugging in lowlands due to leakage from canals, soil pollution, overuse of soil & water resources and problem of soil alkalinity & salinity (especially in Punjab, Haryana, North Rajasthan & West U.P)

Doing development is a contributing factor in the rural development of states like Gujarat, Punjab, and Haryana

– India is now an exporter of solid milk and milk products.



Problems Areas of White Revolution:

  1. Supply of pastures / grosses/fodder is directly connected to milk production. Supply of pastures is dependent on the performance of monsoon. During flood and drought milk supply is reduced, price of milk is increased.
  2. Per capita per day production of milk in India is poor as breeds of milch animals are inferior in India.
  3. Climate of India is hot and humid. Epidemics are common and health infrastructure is poor
  4. Rural infrastructure is poor. Collection and transportation of milk requires all-weather roads in rural areas. Collection and transportation is difficult especially during disturbed weather like heavy rainfall, cyclones, floods etc

    Introduction: It was started in 1970. Blue Revolution, the Neel Kranti Mission has the vision to achieve economic prosperity of the country and the fishers and fish farmers as well as contribute towards food and nutritional security through full potential utilization of water resources for fisheries development in a sustainable manner, keeping in view the bio-security and environmental concerns.


    • To improve fish production and productivity
    • Realization of production of fish through inland fishing
    • Improving per capita per day availability of protein
    • Additional employment and income creation.

    Strategy & Implementation

    National Fish Farm Development Agency was established. The program was implanted through extending the following bio-technology and financial inputs to fish farmers and fishermen:

    • Fast Growing varieties of fish
    • Improved nets
    • Biofeed
    • Mechanized boats and trawlers
    • Financial support for cooling, refrigeration & packaging facilities to improve processing and marketing of fish and fish products.


    • India is now the 3rd largest producer of fish after China and Japan.
    • In terms of inland fishing, India is the 2nd largest producer after China.
    • Now the contribution of inland fishing is more than marine fishing.
    • India is now an exporter of fish and fish products.
    • Marine export is largest sector of export in agriculture and allied sector.

    Problem Areas:

    • Natural hazards like drought, flood, cyclones, tsunami adversely affect fish production.
    • Growing water pollution is a major concern. It is adversely affecting fish and fish production in ponds, lakes, rivers and coastal regions.
    • Rural infrastructure is poor lack of electricity and power is a major hindrance in refrigeration and packaging of fish and fish products. It adversely affects income and employment in rural areas.
    • Fish market is highly localized. In case of surplus production, wastages are high.


    Changing Cropping Patterns In India


    1. Emphasis is on cash crops with modernization of agriculture and use of high cost inputs, Indian agriculture is transforming from subsistence to commercialization. Commercialization emphasizes on profit generation which is facilitating cultivation of cash crops that have demand in the market wheat, rice, sugarcane, cotton, oilseeds, horticulture etc… are grown rather than Jowar, Bajra or Ragi.
    2. Crop diversification is reducing and Monoculture is increasing Monoculture is extensive cultivation of a given crop for marinization of profit. With assured water supply and improved seeds, tendency of monoculture is increasing in India. Crop diversification is reducing.
    3. Crop intensity is increasing. With assured water supply, use of improved seeds, chemical fertilizers and machines, crop intensity is Increasing It Is Particularly High In Punjab, Haryana, West U.P. and Coastal Regions which have high rainfall and assured water supply through irrigation.
    4. Production of crops like barley, Jowar, Bajra, pulses is stagnated as these are rain-fed crops-particularly grown in semi-dry and dry regions of India which are dependent on rainfall for irrigation.
    5. There is tremendous growth in the allied sector. India is the largest producer of milk in the world, the 3rd largest producer of fish, largest cattle population in the world and a great producer of vegetables and fruits. This diversified production of India is largely due to diverse Agro-climatic conditions and modernization of agriculture.
    6. Natural and environmental resources are under strain due to overuse, particularly soil and water resources. High crop intensity, mono-culture, cultivation of water and nutrient intensive crops like paddy, sugarcane & wheat is degrading soil and water resources.
    7. Dependency on monsoon is persistent even though there is improvement in the modernization facilities. Production and productivity in agriculture and allied sectors is directly connected with the performance of monsoon.