Climate and Drainage System of India

The Climate of India consists of a wide range of weather across a large geographical area. This is very difficult to generalize the climate of India in a single word.  However, some meteorologists conclude the climate of India as  Tropical Monsoon Climate. Monsoon is an Arabic term that indicates seasonal changes in the distribution pattern of:

  • Atmosphere Pressure
  • Temperature
  • Rainfall
  • The direction of Wind

Climate of India 

Climate of India
Map of India indicating about Climate of India
Based on the seasonal distribution of these four parameters, the climate of India is divided into the following climate: 19

Although the Great Plains of India are located in the Sub-Tropical Zone, the Indian climate is called Tropical which indicates its hot and humid conditions with seasonal rainfall. The topicality of India has been contributed by the following two physiographic factors:

  1. Himalayan Mountains – North of the Great Plains
  2. Indian Peninsula – Surrounded by sea from three sides

In the winter season, extremely cold Polar winds are prevented by the Himalayan mountain ranges from flowing into the Great Plains of India. Thus, winters are short & mild.


During summers, Southern Western Monsoon winds which are Tropical hot and humid winds flow to the Great Plains of India and generate rainfall under the influence of the Orographic Effect of the Himalaya with their inflow into the Great Plains, hot & humid.




Southwest Monsoon Season


The Southern Western season starts in the last week of May or the first week of June which is when there is a burst of monsoon. The heaviest rainfall is seen in the Andaman & Nicobar Islands and the North European Hills due to the Bay of Bengal branch, the windward side of Western Ghats due to the Arabian Sea branch.

Retreating Monsoon


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